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Medieval & Renaissance. Medieval Church Music 800 – 1400. Plainchant/Plainsong The earliest written down music, sung in churches by monks & priests Monophonic texture Latin text Irregular rhythms, freely following text Often melismatic Modal. Modal. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Medieval & Renaissance

Medieval & Renaissance

Medieval Church Music800 1400

Plainchant/PlainsongThe earliest written down music, sung in churches by monks & priestsMonophonic textureLatin textIrregular rhythms, freely following textOften melismaticModal

ModalModes came before major and minor system of tonalityThey have NO sharps or flatsAll medieval compositions are based on plainchant which in turn are based on modes.The Dorian mode was very common.

Try creating a chant-like melody using this mode

Developing into Choral compositionMusic began to be written with 2 then 3 lines of plainchant, first in unison, then interweavingThese compositions were sacred and formed the basis of church worship. Every part of the service was sung.Often 2 choirs would sing opposite each other and the music would imitate between the 2 groups creating ANTIPHONY, like an echo.

MASSThe mass is what the Christian Church originally called (and still do in the Catholic and Anglican Church) the service, where you worship Gods WORD and receive his Body & Blood in COMMUNION. Music was written for each part of this service.

MASSThe text was in LATIN and divided into these sections:Kyrie GloriaCredoSanctus & BenedictusAgnus Dei There are normally many voices (SATB) singing in imitation

MotetA Motet is a small scale, vocal work performed in church, separate from the mass. The voices are layered on top of each other, creating a polyphonic texture, with lots of IMITATION.It can be Sacred and later secular. It sometimes has accompaniment

It has LATIN textLater, composers mixed religious text with everyday vocabulary, which annoyed the Church

The Reformation & Musical DevelopmentBy the renaissance, the Mass and Motet were still the most popular compositions, but more parts were written and there was more Chromaticism (adding accidentals to the modes)Composers started to merge secular music with sacredThe Reformation meant that Protestants required music written in their own language rather than Latin

Musicians were performing in tavernsWhich lead to the development of secular Songs and dancesRenaissance Sacred Music - Anthem

A religious small scale vocal work, performed in the Protestant churchEquivalent to a motet but the text is in ENGLISHMainly A CappellaImitative and Polyphonic texture

Renaissance Secular MusicQueen Elizabeth 1st is now on the thrownComposers were writing songs for music in the court or at homeThese are called madrigals and can have up to 4 different vocal parts, but only one voice on each part

MadrigalThere are 3 types of MadrigalMadrigal (proper)BallettAyre

A Madrigal proper is very IMITATIVEVery POLYPHONICUses word painting to highlight the ENGLISH words

Madrigal BallettThis is the most common type of madrigal played in the exam. And the easiest to recognise!It is Strophic (each verse is the same)It has a refrain (other name for a chorus) which always includes FA LA LAMainly homophonicDance-like rhythmsLighter style

Madrigal Ayre

Solo voice with Lute/Viol accompaniment

Very expressive and often melancholySubject often covers love

Instruments

ConsortA consort is a group ofSame Instrument playingTogether. Most commonIn Renaissance, were Different sizes of VIOLS

VIOLS early form of cello withoutA spike on the bottom. TheyCame in varying sizes

RenaissanceDances

DancesPavane Slow and StatelyGalliard more lively with 3 beats in the barDances wereGrouped in Pairs and laterMade up a suite

Main CharacteristicsMost important music was Sacred Choral music the oldest, written in the form of plainchantAll compositions were based on modes, but this slowly changed throughout the Renaissance as composers added more chromaticismLater, secular music evolved with the Madrigal and dances

Test on concepts belowPlainchantMode/ModalMassMotetAnthemMadrigal BallettAyre

PavaneGalliardSuiteConsortPolyphonicMonophonicWord SettingA CappellaAntiphony/ AntiphonalLute/Viol