locus of the renaissance. medieval trade medieval guilds
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Locus of the Renaissance
The Plague Changes SocietyWhat significant ways did the Plague reorder society?(Hint: Think about the film!!!!)
Medieval City-States Emerge
Late Medieval City-States
5 Themes of the Renaissance
Characterized by self-conscious awareness that Italians were living in a new eraArtists of the Renaissance had contempt for medieval predecessors5 Key themes : IndividualismRationalismSecularismVirtHumanismItalian Renaissance
Pico della Mirandola 1463-1494Our destiny is not determined by anything outside of us.God has bestowed upon us a unique distinction: the liberty to determine the form and value our lives shall acquire.man is the master of his own destiny!
Francesco Petrarch 1304-1374Father ofHumanism
Living, I despise what melancholy fatehas brought us wretches in these evil years.Long before my birth time smiled and may again,for once there was, and yet will be, more joyful days.But in this middle age times dregssweep around us, and we beneath a heavyload of vice. Genius, virtue, glory nowhave gone, leaving chance and sloth to rule.Shameful vision this! We must awake or die!
Sonnet to Laura
If this should be love, O God, what shakes me?If Love it is, what strange, what rich delight!If Love be kind, why has itfangs to bite?If cruel, why so sweet the barb that rakes me?
The Book ofthe Courtier
I am of the opinion that the true profession of the Courtier ought to be that ofarms; which I would havehim follow above all elseand be known among others as bold and strongand loyal to whomsoever he serves...
Niccollo Machiavelli1469-1527some virtues willlead to a princesdestruction and some vices will allow himto survive.. The Prince c.1515
*Economic growth was the basis for the Renaissance
Northern Italy (centrally located) benefited from the crusades and the spice trade*N Italian city-states evolved during the Middle Ages12th century communes were formed by guildsSought independence from nobility* Commercial Monopoly: Controlled membership apprentice journeyman master craftsman Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. Controlled pricesProvided economic security for their members - cared for sick etc.
*Feudal nobility llmerges with commercial class (guilds)
Produces a NEW CLASS the urban nobility
Who is left out? Popolo
Disenfranchised and over taxed; unsuccessfully revolted.*Bellini, Doges of Venice
City-states ruled by oligarchies or despots (signori) - faade of republican government**Individualism stressed:a) personalityb) uniquenessc) fullest development of capabilitiesd) the quest for glory
The worth of youPaintings signedArtist as an individual*Use your own mind & draw conclusionsEducation, literacy, printing press etc*Concerned with the material world not the eternal worldLorenzo Valla On Pleasure defended pleasure Boccaccio Decameron about a worldly society.Papal interests actually encouraged worldliness Revolve around state, as opposed to church*Man made best use of his resourcesAbility of a man to be able to make an impact on his endeavorLatin for manQuality of being a ;man as opposed to beastExcel in all that he didAct heroically & decisively for good of country*The study of the classics became known as new learning or humanism Humanism emphasized:a) human beingsb) human achievementsc) human capabilitiesItalian humanism became more of an interest to lay people
Literary movement in ItalyFrom Cicero - ability of man to act like a man
i) Deeply religious viewed the classics in a new lightii) Studied classics to understand human natureiv) Very Christian - men and women were in Gods imagev) Rejected classical ideas that opposed Christianity but sought a harmony between paganism, secularism, and Christianity.vi) Loved the language of the classics
Does not mean absence of ChristBut did go against the need to forsake the secular worldGod created the world - appreciate it*One of the founders of humanist movement was PetrarchThe Renaissance was the light after the gloom of the Dark AgesThe Roman Empire was the peak of human civilizationGlories of this world but meaning of today came from classical pastFocus on Plato - more poetic/lyrical than the logical & unemotional Aristotle*Critical of medieval Latin as barbaricMA seen as a bad intervalFirst & foremost considered himself a Christian*His sonnets became inspiration for reflective poetry*The Italian Humanist - non religiousWrote for cultured elite; well-roundedness*Active in Politics: chancery of Florence; policy-shaper; exiledHermit-like existenceTo prevent chaos: need an all powerful government; any means necessaryPrince was supreme law, not subject to itIgnored the question of future punishment