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  • RENAISSANCE A REBIRTH OF LEARNING IN EUROPE
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  • The word renaissance is a French word which means rebirth
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  • During the Dark Ages, there was no time for interest in art and literature. People were too busy trying to stay alive
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  • During the Middle Ages, most art, drama, and serious writing was about religion.
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  • The Renaissance brought a rebirth of interest in art, learning, and exploration of all sorts.
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  • The Renaissance is considered to have started in Italy. The dates in England are 1485-1660
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  • One of the starting points for the Renaissance was the rediscovery of ancient Greek literature that had been lost for centuries.
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  • A way of thinking called humanism was also part of the Renaissance.
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  • Humanism emphasized the to make peoples lives better on earth, instead of just telling them things would be better in heaven.
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  • Humanists also tried to reconcile classical literature and the Bible
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  • Two famous humanists were Sir Thomas More and Erasmus.
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  • Sir Thomas More
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  • Erasmus
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  • More was eventually beheaded for opposing King Henry VIII
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  • The biggest change for art and drama was that the subject no longer had to be religion.
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  • Artists now tried to make humans looked realistic.
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  • One example is Michelangelo
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  • Many of his sculptures are amazingly realistic
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  • Michelangelos Moses
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  • He is probably best known for painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.
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  • Another famous Italian artist is Leonardo da Vinci
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  • Leonardo Da Vincis Mona Lisa
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  • The Renaissance would not have happened if not for one invention in the middle of the 1400s. What do you think it was?
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  • Yes, of course. I am talking about the printing press, invented by Johannes Gutenberg.
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  • Suddenly, people could afford books, and literacy rates increased.
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  • The King James translation of the Bible into English was authorized in 1611, and of course printed on the new printing press.
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  • Many important discoveries were also made in science during the Renaissance
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  • For example, in 1543 Nicolaus Copernicus published the theory that the earth went around the sun, instead of the other way around.
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  • Copernicus
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  • In 1609, Galileo became the first astronomer to study the heavens with a telescope.
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  • Galileo
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  • In England, politics and religion were mixed together in a crazy kind of stew.
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  • The biggest player in this story is King Henry VIII
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  • King Henry VIII
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  • More than anything else, Henry wanted a son, to be the heir to the throne
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  • His first wife was named Catherine of Aragon.
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  • Her parents were King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain.
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  • Catherine of Aragon
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  • Catherine only had one child survive to adulthood, a daughter named Mary Tudor.
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  • Mary Tudor
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  • Henry obviously needed a new wife, but the Catholic Church did not permit divorce.
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  • Henry decided to try to get an annulment, but for this he needed the permission of the Pope.
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  • Do you know what the difference is between a divorce and an annulment?
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  • A divorce ends an existing marriage
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  • An annulment states that no legitimate marriage ever existed
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  • Henry claimed his marriage was not legal because Catherine had been previously married to his brother Arthur.
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  • The Pope denied Henrys request.
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  • Henry finally broke England away from the Catholic Church
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  • He made himself head of the Church of England, and granted himself a divorce
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  • What did he need now?
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  • That right! A new wife! And he already had one picked out!
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  • His 2 nd wife was named Anne Boleyn
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  • Anne Boleyn
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  • Annes happiness did not last long, because she had a daughter and miscarried a son.
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  • The daughters name was Elizabeth
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  • Henry decided to get rid of Anne by accusing her of a terrible crime
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  • He accused her of having an affair with her brother George
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  • He had George tortured until he confessed, the used this evidence against Anne
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  • Anne was beheaded in the Tower of London
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  • Once again, Henry needed a new wife
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  • Henrys 3 rd wife was named Jane Seymour
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  • Jane Seymour
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  • She gave birth to a son named Edward, but died shortly of complications from childbirth
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  • Henrys 4 th wife was a German woman named Anne of Cleaves
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  • Anne of Cleves
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  • He divorced her because he found her unattractive
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  • Henrys 5 th wife was named Catherine Howard
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  • Katherine Howard
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  • She was caught in an affair with a man named Thomas Culpepper, and was beheaded.
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  • Henry sixth and last wife was named Catherine Parr
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  • Catherine Parr
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  • She outlived him.
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  • After Henrys death, his son Edward became king, but died soon after.
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  • Edward VI
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  • After Edwards death, his sister Mary became Queen.
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  • Her attempt to return England to the Catholic Church earned her the nickname Bloody Mary.
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  • After Marys death, her sister Elizabeth became Queen.
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  • She also had a nickname, which was The Virgin Queen, because she never married.
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  • Elizabeth ruled for forty-four years.
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  • She was an extremely intelligent and strong-willed person.
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  • She even had her own cousin, Mary Stuart, beheaded for trying to overthrow her.
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  • Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
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  • During Elizabeths reign, England also began to replace Spain as the most powerful nation in the world
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  • The key event in this process was the English navys defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588.
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  • When Elizabeth died in 1603, she was followed by her cousin, who became King James I
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  • James I
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  • An important religious movement also began at this time, called the Protestant Reformation
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  • Christian denominations other than the Catholic Church began to develop.
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  • One of the most important people in this movement was a German monk named Martin Luther.
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  • In 1517, Luther nailed 95 theses, or statements against the Catholic Church, to the door of a church in Wittenberg, Germany
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  • Luther was soon excommunicated by the Pope
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  • He wasnt arrested because he was protected by powerful local rulers in Germany
  • Slide 103
  • His ideas led to the development of the Lut

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