reform movements of the 1800s to what extent did the reform movements of the mid-1800s improve life...
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Reform Movements of the 1800sTo what extent did the reform movements of the mid-1800s improve life for Americans?Mrs. MataNYOS Charter School
TranscendentalismThe movement based on the belief that the world around us "transcends" or goes beyond what we see, hear, taste, touch or feel and based on intuition and imagination
HENRY DAVID THOREAURALPH WALDO EMERSONWALTWHITMAN
Transcendentalists believe that every human being has unlimited potential, that they can find the answers to lifes mysteries only by learning to trust their emotions and intuitions.Urged people to question societys rules and institutions. DO NOT CONFORM to others expectations.
ABOLITIONISTSThe movement to ban slavery
Fighters the ABOLITION of SlaveryWilliam Lloyd GarrisonPublisher of The LIBERATOR newspaperWanted full equality for African AmericansI will not retreat a single inchand I will be heard!Proslavery groups destroyed his printing press and burned his houseFrederick DouglassFormer slaveVoice like thunderIndependent thinkerPublished autobiographyStarted his own newspaper, North Star
Speakers and Activists for WOMENS RIGHTS and the ABOLITION of Slavery Sarah & Angelina GrimkeSouthern sisters born to a slaveholding family in South CarolinaOnly spoke to crowds of women at first, later to both men & womenProslavery mobs burned down the building that Angelina gave a speech
Abolitionists never sought place or power. All they asked was freedom; all they wanted was that the white man should take his foot off the negro's neck.Angelina Grimke
Conductor on the Underground Railroad HARRIET TUBMANI never ran my train off the track, and I never lost a passenger.~ Harriet Tubman
Female abolitionists were in a strange position. They were trying to convince lawmakers that slavery was illegal, yet they themselves could not vote or hold office. They worked to raise money for the abolition movement, yet their fathers and husbands controlled their money and property. They spoke out against slave beatings, yet their husbands could discipline them however they wanted.These women saw that they had much in common with enslaved people. What then can woman do for the slave, asked Angelina Grimke, when she is herself under the feet of man and shamed into silence?
WOMENS RIGHTSThe movement for equal treatment
ELIZABETH CADY STANTONLUCRETIA MOTTThese two women met in 1840 at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England. When they arrived, they were outraged to discover that women were not allowed to speak at the meeting. 47 years old4 childrenQuakerPreached against slavery in both black & white churchesHelped black girls attend school25 years oldNewly wedNever spoke in public Attended 1st high school for girls in U.S.
LUCRETIA MOTTELIZABETH CADY STANTON1848 SENECA FALLS CONVENTION Seneca Falls, New YorkOn July 19, 1848, nearly 300 people, including 40 men, arrived for the Seneca Falls Convention. The convention organizers modeled their proposal for womens rights, called the Declaration of Sentiments, on the Declaration of Independence. Just as the D.O.IL listed King Georges acts of tyranny over the colonists, the Declaration of Sentiments listed acts of tyranny by men over women.Man did not let women voteHe did not give her the right to own propertyHe did not allow her to practice professions like medicine and law
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men and WOMEN are created equal.
During the Convention, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, proposed that women demand the right to vote. Stanton received powerful support from Frederick Douglass, a participant at the Convention. He believed that if black men had the right to vote, then so should black womenand all women.
SOJOURNER TRUTHBorn a New York slave in 1797. At birth, her name was Isabelle. She was freed by a New York law which proclaimed that all slaves twenty-eight years of age and over were to be freed. In her later life, she changed her name to Sojourner Truth. Sojourner means traveler. She joined the Anti-Slavery Society and became an abolitionist lecturer and a speaker for women's rights both black and white. She spoke out at religious meetings in the North and on street corners.
AIN'T I A WOMAN? by Sojourner Truth Delivered in 1851 at the Women's Convention in Akron, Ohio Well, children, where there is so much racket there must be something out of kilter. I think that 'twixt the negroes of the South and the women at the North, all talking about rights, the white men will be in a fix pretty soon. But what's all this here talking about? That man over there says that women need to be helped into carriages, and lifted over ditches, and to have the best place everywhere. Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles, or gives me any best place! And ain't I a woman? Look at me! Look at my arm! I have ploughed and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And ain't I a woman? I could work as much and eat as much as a man - when I could get it - and bear the lash as well! And ain't I a woman? I have borne thirteen children, and seen most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And ain't I a woman?
Then they talk about this thing in the head; what's this they call it? [member of audience whispers, "intellect"] That's it, honey. What's that got to do with women's rights or negroes' rights? If my cup won't hold but a pint, and yours holds a quart, wouldn't you be mean not to let me have my little half measure full? Then that little man in black there, he says women can't have as much rights as men, 'cause Christ wasn't a woman! Where did your Christ come from? Where did your Christ come from? From God and a woman! Man had nothing to do with Him. If the first woman God ever made was strong enough to turn the world upside down all alone, these women together ought to be able to turn it back , and get it right side up again! And now they is asking to do it, the men better let them. Obliged to you for hearing me, and now old Sojourner ain't got nothing more to say.
TEMPERANCEThe movement to ban alcohol
Education ReformThe movement to make education available to all children
School life in the 1800s:
Wealthy parents sent their children to private schools or hired tutors in the east coast
On the western frontier, students might attend a public school, part of the day, in one room, with 60 other students. Most children did not go to school at all.
In the big cities, like New York, some poor children stole, destroyed property and set fires. Education reformers believed that schooling would help these children escape poverty and become good citizens.
Horace Mann spoke out on the need for public schools in the state of Massachusetts. Citizens of the Massachusetts agreed and voted to pay taxes to build school, pay and train teachers. Most high schools and colleges only accepted boys. Some states, mostly in the South, passed laws to keep African Americans out of public schools.
HAVE WE FIXED THIS YET?
He has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise [vote]. He has compelled her to submit to laws, the formation of which she had no voice.Discuss with your group how to rewrite the following in words a classmate could understand.Has this grievance been redressed today?
FIXEDNOT FIXEDHe has never permitted her to exercise her inalienable right to the elective franchise [vote]. He has compelled her to submit to laws, the formation of which she had no voice.
He has monopolized [dominated] nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration [pay].Discuss with your group how to rewrite the following in words a classmate could understand.Has this grievance been redressed today?
FIXEDNOT FIXEDHe has monopolized [dominated] nearly all the profitable employments, and from those she is permitted to follow, she receives but a scanty remuneration [pay].
He has denied her the facilities for obtaining a thorough education, all colleges being closed against her.Discuss with your group how to rewrite the following in words a classmate could understand.Has this grievance been redressed today?
He has created a false sense of public sentiment by giving the world a different code of morals for men and women.
Discuss with your group how to rewrite the following in words a classmate could understand.Has this grievance been redressed today?