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  • REFORM MOVEMENTS OF THE 1800S Which reforms of the era had the most lasting effect on the civil rights and liberties of Americans?
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  • The first half of the nineteenth century was a time of movers and shakers, people who saw injustices in American society and worked to abolish those injustices. These reforms would change the lives of many individuals.
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  • What were the major reform movements of the 1800s? Treatment of the mentally ill Temperance movement Abolition of slavery Womens rights Education
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  • Vocabulary to Know NINETEENTH CENTURY 1800s ABOLISH eliminate; get rid of INJUSTICE unfairness; inequality REFORMER someone who changes something by correcting faults and removing abuses
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL Leader: Dorothea Dix GOAL: better treatment of persons with mental illnesses REASON: the mentally ill were badly treated
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL In the early 1800s, Americans viewed the United States as a land of unlimited opportunity. Many believed that those who failed did so because they had bad characters. As a result, debtors, children who were offenders, and the mentally ill were often locked up in jails with murderers and thieves. Dorothea Dix and other reformers worked to change Americans ways of thinking about these institutions and their inmates.
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL Dorothea Dix first observed prison conditions while teaching Sunday school at a Boston prison for women in 1841. She wanted to find out if all the prisons in the state were as appalling. Over a two-year period, Dix investigated more than 800 prisons, jails, and poorhouses.
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL She found the prisoners were often living in inhumane conditions.
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL Prisoners were often chained to the walls with little or no clothing, often in unheated cells.
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL To Dorothea Dixs horror, she learned that some of the inmates were guilty of no crimethey were mentally ill persons. Dix made it her lifes work to educate the public as to the poor conditions for both the mentally ill and prisoners. Dorothea Dix Hospital, Raleigh, NC
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL Dix decided to appeal to the Massachusetts government for help. In 1843 she addressed the following report to the state legislature: I proceed, gentlemen, to call your attention to the present state of Insane Persons confined, in cages, closets, cellars, stalls, pens! Chained, naked, beaten with rods, and lashed into obedience
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  • TREATMENT OF THE MENTALLY ILL As a result of Dixs report, Massachusetts passed a law to build mental hospitals where mental illness could be treated as a disease rather than a crime. By 1852, she had persuaded 11 states to open hospitals for persons with mental illness.
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  • Vocabulary to Know MENTALLY ILL psychologically ill CRIMINAL lawbreaker; offender; delinquent
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Leader: American Temperance Union and religious leaders GOAL: to eliminate alcohol abuse REASON: alcohol led to crime, poverty, abuse of family
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Religious leaders stood at the forefront of the war against alcohol. Public drunkenness was common in the early 1800s. Alcohol abuse was widespread, especially in the West and among urban workers.
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Reformers blamed alcohol for: poverty breakup of families crime insanity
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Another effect of the easy-to-get alcohol was the abuse of wives and children.
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT Alcohol abuse was widespread during this time. Employers often paid part of workers wages in rum or whiskey. Workers took rum breaks similar to todays coffee breaks!!
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT The reformers began a campaign against drinking. The campaign was known as the temperance movement.
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT The American Temperance Society was formed in 1826. Within a few years, about 1000 local organizations sprang up across the nation. Some groups took a moderate approach and asked people to drink less alcohol. Other groups insisted that the sale of alcohol be banned altogether!
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  • Northern and Southern temperance societies used propaganda to win support for their cause. They held meetings, gave speeches, and distributed pamphlets. They even sang songs such as Drink Nothing, Boys, but Water, and Father, Bring Home Your Money Tonight.
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT State legislators took the reformers message to heart. By 1857 several states had passed prohibition laws. Many Americans protested the laws, and most of the laws were later repealed. The temperance movement stayed alive, though, and found renewed support later in the century.
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  • TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT with individuals like Carrie Nation.
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  • Vocabulary Terms to Know TEMPERANCE restraint when using alcohol; abstinence from alcohol POVERTY state or condition of being poor
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Leaders: Quakers, Frederick Douglass, Sojourner Truth, William Lloyd Garrison, anti-slavery groups GOAL: end slavery REASON: it is immoral for one person to own another
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY By 1840, nearly 2.5 million enslaved people lived in the South. At one time, the North also had slavery. By 1804 every Northern state legislature had passed laws to eliminate it. The Southern economy, though, depended on slave labor.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY An organized antislavery movement did not begin until after the Revolutionary War. A religious group, the Quakers, started the abolition movement. Quakers had opposed slavery since colonial times. In 1775 the Quakers organized the first antislavery society. ABOLISH SLAVERY!
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY The American Colonization Society, founded in 1817, wanted to help free African Americans. The society set up a colony for free African Americans in Liberia, in western Africa. It was not successful because many African Americans wished to remain in the United States, their home.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY In 1831 white abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison founded The Liberator, a Boston anti-slavery newspaper. In the first issue, Garrison demanded the immediate emancipation, or freeing, of all enslaved persons. He urged abolitionists to take action without delay.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY The North had many prominent African American abolitionists. Isabella Baumfree, although born into slavery in New York, gained her freedom when New York abolished slavery. She changed her name to Sojourner Truth and vowed to tell the world about the cruelty of slavery. She began a tireless crusade against injustice.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY The most important spokesperson for the cause was Frederick Douglass. Born into slavery, Douglass secretly taught himself to read, although Southern laws prohibited it. He escaped from slavery in 1838 and settled in Massachusetts. He captivated audiences by talking about his life in bondage. He spoke out against the injustices faced by free African Americans.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY In addition to his public speaking, Douglass edited a widely read abolitionist journal called the North Star. Douglasss speaking and writing abilities so impressed audiences that opponents refused to believe he had been a slave! In response, he wrote three very moving autobiographies.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Many abolitionists, like Douglass, did more than lecture and write. They became conductors on the Underground Railroad. The Underground Railroad began around 1817. It was not an actual railroad but a series of houses where conductors hid runaway enslaved persons and helped them reach the next station. Enslaved African Americans made their way to the North or Canada on the railroad.
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  • Harriet Tubman became the most famous African American conductor on the Underground Railroad. Tubman fled from slavery in 1849. Later she explained why she risked her life to escape: There was one of two things I had a right to, liberty or death; if I could not have the one, I would have the other.
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  • ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Tubman helped others escape. She returned to the South 19 times and led more than 300 enslaved people including her own parentsto freedom. Slaveholders offered a reward of $40,000 for her, dead or alive. But she managed to avoid discovery time after time.
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  • Vocabulary to Know ABOLITIONIST a person who works to abolish, or get rid of, slavery ENSLAVED PERSON someone who is kept in bondage; a person with no freedom EMANCIPATION libera


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