russia in the 1800s: reform and industrialization

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Russia in the 1800s: Reform and Industrialization. Russia In the Early 1800s Before the Reforms. The Romanov Dynasty (1613 1917). Mikhail Romanov 1613-1645 Alexei Romanov 1645-1676 Peter I the Great 1682-1721 Catherine II (Catherine the Great) 1762-1796 Alexander I 1801-1825 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Russias Reforms and Industrial Advantage

Russia in the 1800s: Reform and IndustrializationRussia In the Early 1800s Before the ReformsThe Romanov Dynasty (1613 1917)Mikhail Romanov 1613-1645Alexei Romanov 1645-1676Peter I the Great 1682-1721Catherine II (Catherine the Great) 1762-1796Alexander I 1801-1825Nicholas I 1825-1855Alexander II 1855-1881Alexander III 1881-1894 Nicholas II 1894-1917The Holy AllianceFormed at the Congress of Vienna in 1815

Conservative alliance of Russia, Prussia, and Austria

United in the defense of religion and the established order (keeping things status quo)

But, Russian intellectuals wanted to Westernize Russia (political freedom, educational, etc.)Decembrist Uprising (1825)Russias ruling elites (tsar, nobles) were conservatives and were against liberal reforms

They censored the intellectuals (college students, etc) in favor of liberal reforms

Army officers who wanted to Westernize revolted (Decembrist Uprising)

Revolt was stopped, and Tsar Nicholas I

As result, Tsar repressed liberal reformers even more

As a result of the repression, Russia avoided the revolutions that swept across Europe in 1848

Russian ExpansionMaintained control over Poland (dated back to Partition of Poland, 1772)

Defeated Ottomans and gained territory in Eastern Europe in 1830s

Russia helped groups such as Greece and Serbia gain independence from OttomansEconomic and Social Problems: The Peasant QuestionRussia Fails To IndustrializeWestern Europe experiencing Industrial Revolution, but not Russia

Russia still had serfdom

To keep pace with West, landlords demanded more labor from serfs

Russia remained a largely peasant society with an agrarian economyCrimean War (1854-1856)Russia fought Ottomans, claimed to be protecting rights of Christians in Ottoman owned lands

Crimean War (1854-1856)Britain and France helped the Ottomans, and Russia lost

Loss showed how far Russia was behind the West industrially and technologically

Russia realized it needed to reform, and over next 20 years, series of reforms took place (1860s and 1870s)

The Reform Era and Early IndustrializationEmancipation of the SerfsRussia ended serfdom in 1861

Serfs were given land when freedLandlords (nobles) close allies to tsars

The landlords had long controlled peasants for tsars

Even though serfs freed, Russia made sure to preserve power of aristocratic class (nobles)

Redemption Payments = Serfs got land, but had to pay for land (couldnt leave village until paid for)

Serfs angered over redemption payments, many rose up

Emancipation of the SerfsEnd of Serfdom = Large Labor SourceIn order to industrialize, a country need to have a large labor source, Russia now had it

However, industrialization still didnt take place right away (still took more time)Tsar Alexander II (1855-1881)Passed many reforms after loss in Crimean War (emancipating serfs just one of them)

Zemstvoes = created these local councils that could build roads, schools, and provide medical service

Only wealthy could elect members of the zemstvoesTrans-Siberian RailwayRussia started building huge rail system in 1870s

Trans-Siberian Railroad = connected European Russia (west) with the Pacific (east)

Iron, coal, and grain industries grew as result of railroads

Siberia became more developed, and Russias presence in Asia expanded

Russia Finally Has Industrial RevolutionRailroads played big role

Western business were encouraged to build factories in Russia

By 1900 half of Russian industry was foreign owned

Russia became leaders in steel, petroleum, and textile output

Industrialization Still Way Behind WestLots of big factories in Russia

But didnt have best technology in those factories

Agricultural technology was way behind the timesMostly, Reforms FailedArmy tried to modernize, but military discipline and efficiently were poor

Russia lacked strong middle class of artisans and professionals like the West had

Intellectuals who wanted change felt there was not enoughProtest and Revolution in RussiaSocial ProblemsFrequent famines led to peasant uprisings

Peasants also revolted against redemption payments they still had to pay

Intelligentsia = radical intellectuals that were very aggressive and demanded liberal reforms

Many devoted their life to revolution

Social ProblemsSocial ProblemsAnarchists = people who want to end all forms of government

Russian radicals turned to anarchism as a means to oppose the tsarist regime

When anarchists failed to recruit many peasants to their cause, they turned to terrorism

Alexander II Ends ReformsAlexander II stopped his reforms in late 1870s

He felt they were creating problems (ex: more freedoms allowed for the rise of anarchist movement)

Censorship increased and political agitators sent to prison camps in Siberia

Alexander II assassinated in 1881 by anarchist bomb

Successors further stopped any reforms and political freedoms

Minority Nationalities TargetedGovernment repression often aimed at minority nationalities living in the Russian empire (Poles, Ukrainians, and Jews)

Pogroms = Mass executions that were ordered against JewsMarxist Reaches Russia (1890s)Marxism promoted idea of a proletariat (working class) revolution

Vladimir Ilyich Lenin = Marxist leader who led movements to overthrow the tsar

Bolsheviks = Marxist political party in Russia

Workers formed unions and went on strike (which was illegal in Russia)

Revolution InevitablePeasants upset over power of landlords

Urban working-class upset about lack of freedoms

Intellectuals (intelligentsia) demanded liberal reforms

Instead of compromise, tsar repressed freedoms even moreMilitary Successes = Problems?Beat the Ottomans in 1870s

Helped create new Slavic states in Balkans (ex: Serbia) which Russians vowed to protect

Increased influence in Middle East and central Asia

But, Russia expanded too far, and the military was stretched too thin

Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)Japan angry about Russia expansion into east Asia (China, Korea) so fought Russia

Japan won a shocking victory

Resulted in the people of Russia revolted against the tsar

Russian Revolution of 1905In response to the massive protests after loss in Russo-Japanese War, Tsar Nicholas II agreed to pass liberal reforms

Duma = A national parliament that was created to make Russia a parliamentary monarchy

Kulaks = Peasants given more rights, and some, called kulaks, got wealthy enough to own land

Nicholas II BacktracksNicholas II comes from a long line of autocratic tsars, and soon went back on these reforms

He stripped the Duma of its power

He once again began policy of political repression

This led to even more Russians opposing the regime, and a bigger revolution would soon occur that would end the tsarist regime in Russia forever

The Rest of Eastern EuropeNew NationsMany countries were newly independent in Eastern Europe (had broken from Ottoman Empire or Austria-Hungary)

These new nations turned to Russia for help, guidance, and ideas

Many copied Russia

Most had autocratic kings (like tsars) that ruled with unlimited power

Landlords had huge power

Most began to industrialize, though even less than Russia did

Culture Thrives in Eastern EuropeWhile there were many political and economic problems, cultural output thrived

National dictionaries, folk tales, and music were created which enhanced senses of heritage

Scientific advancements occurred (such as Gregor Mendels research on genetics)

Literature

MusicChopin

Liszt

ScienceGregor MendelIvan Pavlov

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