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- 1. Jean- Jacques Rousseau By Emily Chen and Brianna LeConti
- 2. Early Life
- Jean Jacques Rousseau was born in Geneva on June 28 th , 1712 to Isaac Rousseau and Suzanne Bernard. His mother died a few days after on July 7 th and his older brother ran away. So Rousseau was brought up mainly by his father. When his father got in a fight with a French Captain and was at risk of imprisonment, his father left. Therefore Jean was raised by his uncle and was later sent off with his cousin to study in the village of Bosey. Rousseau went to Paris to become a composer and musician in 1742. In 1745 Rousseau met a linen maid by the name of Therese Levasseur. They got married in 1768 and then had five children together. All of the kids were left at the Paris Orphanage. In 1753, Rousseau submitted an entry to an essay contest. The question was What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by the natural law? The answer to the question would soon become his book called Discourse on the Origin of Inequality Among Men. A year after the publication of the Second Discourse , Rousseau and Levasseur left Paris. In 1761, he published his novel Julie or the New Heloise. After spending three years in the southeast, Rousseau returned to Paris in 1770 where he copied music. He died on July 3 rd ,1778.
- 3. Ideas and Beliefs
- He believed that people choose to give up freedom to be ruled by a government
- Also he believed the good of the community as a whole is more important than the individual
- 4. Education
- His idea is that education should be carried out so far as possible.
- 5. Interests
- political philosophy
- 6. Family Life
- Married Therese Levasseur
- Had 5 kids together
- Left them at Paris Orphanage
- 7. Book on the philosophy of education Published several months after the Social Contract The Emile was immediately banned by Paris authorities Written in first person with a tutor as the narrator. The Emile
- 8. The Three Discourses
- The first book is called Discourse on the Sciences and Arts also called the First Discourse
- The first part of this compares how the arts and sciences flourished in some societies and not in others impacted morality and virtue
- The second part focused on the examination of the arts and sciences themselves and the perils they bring
- The second book is the Discourse on the Origin of Inequality called the Second Discourse
- The first part is Rousseaus description of human beings in the pure state of nature and how they are uncorrupted by civilization and the socialization process
- Part two explains the complex series of historical events that moved humans from the pure state to the state of present day civil society.
- Book three is the Discourse on Political Economy also called the Third Discourse
- This book explains what Rousseau takes to be a legitimate political regime.
- 9. Other Works
- Julie or the New Heloise
- One of Rousseaus popular works
- A no vel
- R everies of the Solitary Walker
- Began working on it in the fall o f 1776
- Part story, part philosophical treatise.
- Rousseau: Judge of Jean Jacques
- Referred to as the Dialogues
- In the form of three dialogues
- 10. Historical and Philosophical Influence
- His first major philosophical work was, A Discourse on the Science and Arts.
- Greatest philosophical influence was on the ethical thought of Immanuel Kant
- Another major influence was Rousseaus political thought
- Influenced Karl Max
- Rousseaus works were also championed by the leaders of the French Revolution
- 11. Quotes
- Every man has the right to risk his own life in order to preserve it. Has it ever been said that a man who throws himself out the window to escape from a fire is guilty of suicide? Jean-Jacques Rousseau
- Man is born free, yet everywhere he is in chains
- Only the general will can direct the energies of the state
- A feeble body weakens the mind.
- Base souls have no faith in great individuals.
- Below is a list of Rousseaus major works in chronological order. The titles are given in the original French as well as the English translation. Following the title is the year of the works first publication and, for some works, a brief description:
- 1 Discours sur les Sciences et les Arts (Discourse on the Sciences and Arts), 1750.
- Often referred to as the First Discourse, this work was a submission to the Academy of Dijons essay contest, which it won, on the question, Has the restoration of the sciences and arts tended to purify morals?
- Le Devin du Village (The Village Soothsayer), 1753.
- Rousseaus opera: it was performed in France and widely successful.
- Narcisse ou lamant de lui-mme (Narcissus or the lover of himself), 1753.
- A play written by Rousseau.
- Lettre sur la musique francaise (Letter on French music), 1753.
- Discours sur lorigine et les fondments de linegalite (Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality), 1755.
- Often referred to as the Second Discourse, this was another submission to an essay contest sponsored by the Academy of Dijon, though unlike the First Discourse, it did not win the prize. The Second Discourse is a response to the question, What is the Origin of Inequality Among Men and is it Authorized by the Natural Law?
- Discours sur lconomie politique (Discourse on Political Economy), 1755.
- Sometimes called the Third Discourse, this work originally appeared in the Encyclopdie of Diderot and dAlembert.
- Lettre dAlembert sur les Spectacles (Letter to Alembert on the Theater), 1758.
- Juli ou la Nouvelle Hlose (Julie or the New Heloise), 1761.
- A novel that was widely read and successful immediately after its publication.
- Du Contract Social (The Social Contract), 1762.
- Rousseaus most comprehensive work on politics.
- mile ou de lducation (mile or On Education), 1762.
- Rousseaus major work on education. It also contains the Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar , which documents Rousseaus views on metaphysics, free will, and his controversial views on natural religion for which the work was banned by Parisian authorities.
- Lettre Christophe de Beaumont, Archvque de Paris (Letter to Christopher de Beaumont, Archbishop of Paris), 1763.
- Lettres crites de la Montagne (Letters Written from the Mountain), 1764.
- Dictionnaire de Musique (Dictionary of Music), 1767.
- mile et Sophie ou les Solitaires (mile and Sophie or the Solitaries), 1780.
- A short sequel to the mile .
- Considrations sur le gouverment de la Pologne (Considerations on the Government of Poland), 1782.
- Les Confessions (The Confessions), Part I 1782, Part II 1789.
- Rousseaus autobiography.
- Rousseau juge de Jean-Jacques, Dialogues (Rousseau judge of Jean-Jacques, Dialogues), First Dialogue 1780, Complete 1782.
- Les Rveries du Promeneur Solitaire (Reveries of the Solitary Walker), 1782.
- 13. The Social Contract
- It explains the relationship between people and government
- It defines and limits rights
- Sets a condition for membership
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