chapter 2, section 1 7 th grade social studies

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Chapter 2, Section 1

Chapter 2, Section 17th Grade Social Studies

Starter ActivityStarter Activity: How has technology changed over the years? List as many examples as you can think of in your notebook. Be prepared to share in class.Key Vocab & Ideasclassical = relating to Ancient Greece & Rometechnology = the use of science in commerce and industryastrolabe = an instrument used by sailors to observe positions of the starspilgrimage = journey to a holy placemosque = Muslim house of worshipQuran = Muslim holy bookacquire = to come to have somethingimpose = to establish or imply by authority

CrusadesStarted in 1095. Time period called "The Middle Ages" ****watch Brainpop on Middle Ages***9 trips total/lasted about 200 yearsLed by European ChristiansGoal = regain control of their holy sites from the MuslimEffect = brought Europeans into contact with Middle East

CrusadesEuropeans bought spices, sugar, silk, and other items from traders in the Middle East.The items were sent back home to major cities like Venice, Genoa, and Pisa.Interest grew. People wanted these new, exotic items.

Problem: Middle Eastern traders charged high prices on their goods.Solution: Europeans began to look at other trade routes & places to buy goods.

RenaissanceRenaissance: "rebirth"*The expansion of travel and sampling new goods caused Europeans to want to improve their knowledge of the world. *Began studying Ancient Greek & Roman (classical) philosophies*New experimental approach to science *Began thinking about the universe & writing about their ideas.*Studied sculptures & architecture of classical world.Visit this website:

In-Class Project (omit 2015)

Exploration*Nation-states began to form in Europe. *Monarchs came into power. *Leaders wanted to increase trade and make their countries stronger.

Marco Polo: Famous explorer/trader who wrote about his travels."The length of this Desert is so great that 'tis said it wouldtake a year and more to ride from one end of it to the other. And here, where its breadth is least (narrowest), it takes a month to cross it. 'Tis all composed of hills and valleys of sand, and not a thing to eat is to be found on it."---------from The Travels Of Marco Polo (talking about the Gobi desert)

Extension ActivityCommon Core Aligned: The Road With Two-Humped CamelsInventionsAdvances in technology (use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes)Allowed more and more European voyages for exploration and trade.printing press was invented better maps better ships (now had rudder and triangular sail = steer into the wind)gained better instruments: *astrolabe=measured the position of the stars *compass = determine direction

African Kingdoms Flourished from 400-1600 AD

Ghana = African Trade Centergold, copper, salt, slaves, ivory, etc. were traded heremade $$$ by imposing taxes on trade

MALIMansa Musa king 1312-1337made pilgrimage (journey to a holy place) to Mecca.returned with an architect who built mosques (Muslim house of worship) in Timbuktu.

Songhaibuilt strong navy to control Niger Rivercaptured Timbuktu from Mali in 1468Quran (Muslim holy book) started to be used there

Extension ActivityExtension Activity: Please answer the following question in your notebook. What events and technological advances paved the way for European exploration? Use your notes & textbook to help you.Chapter 2: Section 2Early ExplorationStarter ActivityIn your notebook, answer the following question: Would you have wanted to be an early explorer? Explain why or why not.

Key Vocab & Ideassaga = long, detailed storyline of demarcation = imaginary line running down the middle of the Atlantic Ocean from the North Pole to the South Pole dividing the Americas between Spain and Portugalstrait = narrow passageway connecting two larger bodies of watercircumnavigate = sail around the world

Cause & Effect Of Early European ExplorationCauseEffectEuropean desire for new trade routesgrowing power and wealth of European nationscompetition for trademissionaries' desire to convert people to ChristianityKnowledge grows about other regionsEuropeans and Native Americans clashEnslavement of AfricansRivalry in the Americas growUnaware of the Americas. Assumed only one large land mass. Maps didn't include the Americas. Famous Early ExplorersHenry The Navigator (Prince Of Portugual)1420 set up Sarges ("school of navigation")planned voyages & analyzed reportsdid not go on any expeditions himself

Bartholomeu Diazmission (from King John of Portugal) was to reach Asiahad only 2 caravels and a supply shipsailed south around the tip of Africaforced off route by storm & returned homediscovered the southern tip of Africa (Cape Of Good Hope)Caravel - travel in the shallows, lateen sail caught the wind, 75-90 feet long

Vasco Da Gamafirst Portuguese to land in IndiaJuly 1497, set out with 4 shipssailed around the Cape Of Good Hope and up the East coast of Africamade many stops on the eastern coastlanded in Calicut, India in May of 1498

Amerigo Vespucci1502 sailed along the coast of South Americasaid it wasn't part of Asia, continent by itselfgeographers called it "America"

Ferdinand Magellansailed around the tip of South America through a strait (narrow water channel)named the ocean Pacific (pacifico means peacefully in Spanish)crew sailed all the way to Spain in 1522 = first to circumnavigate (travel around) the world

Extension ActivityWhy did Spain and Portugal want to find a sea route to Asia? Think of as many reasons as possible. Use your text book to help you. Who should get credit for discovering America?The Vikings or Columbus? You decide . . . Round 1: The VikingsFirst Europeans to sail to North AmericaVisited Iceland & Greenland in the 800s and 900s.Made settlements (remains have been found by archaeologists in Newfoundlandsagas (traditional stories) tell all about Leif Eriksson. Explored a land west of Greenland around 1000 AD. He called it Vinland. ******watch Brainpop on Vikings******

Round 2: Christopher Columbus1492Sailed with 3 ships: Nina, Pinta, and Santa MariaThought he was at the East Indies, but actually was in the Caribbean Islandsnamed the place San Salvadormade 3 more voyages: explored & mapped the coasts of Central & northern South America******Watch Columbus on Brainpop******

Discussion Time!Who do you think should get credit for Discovering America?Be able to support your answer.Extension ActivityCommon Core Aligned: What Stopped Columbus?In-Class ProjectSelect either Cortes and the Aztec (p. 43) or Pizarro and the Inca (p. 44). Fold the top side of paper to bottom to divide it in half.On the bottom half, draw and color a map of the area. Use p. 12, 14, and 44 for reference.Draw a line to divide the top half into 3 columns. IN EACH COLUMN:*******Write the name of one important concept (idea, invention, person, religion, etc. )*******Draw and color a picture representing the concept.*******Write 3 sentences providing facts about the concept.5) Cut out the outline of a human (the explorer in the area). Draw, color, add construction paper, etc. to decorate your human. Add armor, etc. 6) Tape/glue to map.Project Example

Chapter 2: Section 3Spain In AmericaStarter ActivityRead this quote:

"I know in my heart that we shall TAKE vast and wealthy lands, peoples such as have never before seen . . . If you do not abandon me, as I shall not abandon you, I shall make you in a very short time the richest of all men who have crossed the seas."-----from Cortes: The Life Of The Conqueror by His Secretary

Why do you think explorers felt it was "OK" to take from the native people? Do you feel the same way? Explain. Write your thoughts in your notebook.

Key Vocab & Ideasconquistador = Spanish explorers in America in the 1500sencomienda = system of rewarding conquistadors with tracts of land and the right to tax and demand labor from Native Americans who lived on the landpueblo = home or community of homes built by Native Americansplantation = a large estate run by an owner or manager and farmed by laborers who lived there

Spanish Conquistadors In The Americas(watch brainpop)Mercantilism = Economic Rivalry What fueled the competition?40Hernan CortesLanded in Mexico in 1519 with 500 soldiersmade alliances with the Aztec people's enemieswent Tenochtitlan (Aztec's main city) & was welcomedtook Montezuma (Aztec ruler) prisonerAztec rebelled in 1520 and Montezuma was killed

Francisco Pizarro1523 captured Inca ruler and destroyed most of the Inca militaryThey captured the Inca ruler (Atahualpa) and falsely accused him of crimes. Executed him.Inca were unable to fight/re-group without their leader.Pizarro gained control over the whole empire

Juan Ponce De LeonHoped to find gold and the "Fountain Of Youth" "a spring of running water of such marvelous virtue that drinking it makes old men young again"

Robert La SalleFrenchWanted to reach the Gulf of Mexico by traveling down the Mississippi RiverResultsReached the Gulf of Mexico and claimed the entire Mississippi River Valley for France

44Looking For The Seven Cities Of CibolaHernando De SotoFrancisco Vasquez De Coronado

Sir Walter RaleighEnglishSent by Queen Elizabeth to claim land for England in North AmericaResultsClaimed land from present-day North Carolina to Maine and named it Virginia, in honor of Queen Elizabeth.Sent 100 people to settle at Roanoke Island off North Carolina, but colony disappeared by 1591.

46Why Spain SucceededWeapons = used guns & cannons vs native weapons of sticks & stonesAnimals = had horses to travel quicklyOther natives