The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome

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The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome. Prologue Section 1. Athens Builds a Limited Democracy. Government- system for controlling the society Monarchy- king or monarch; rule is hereditary Aristocracy- ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning families - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome

The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome

Prologue Section 1Athens Builds a Limited DemocracyGovernment- system for controlling the societyMonarchy- king or monarch; rule is hereditaryAristocracy- ruled by a small group of noble, land-owning familiesOligarchy- government ruled by a few people based upon wealth or abilityDemocracy- rule of the peopleAdult male citizens participated in governmental decisions and three nobles were elected to the assembly and later the council of advisorsAround 600 BC economic problems eventually forced farmers into slavery

Important People in AthensReforms of Solon (594 BC)Outlawed debt slavery and canceled farmers debtsCreated the Council of 400- prepared businessAny citizen could bring charges against wrongdoersCitizen= free adult males; 1/10 populationCleisthenes Enacts More ReformsReorganized the assembly for rich and poorCouncil of 500- proposed laws and counseled the assemblyCitizens= 1/5 populationPericles Strengthens DemocracyIncreased paid public officialsDirect Democracy- citizens rule and make laws directly

Greek Philosophers Use Reason1. The universe is put together in an orderly way and is subject to absolute and changing laws2. People can understand these laws through logic and reasonSPASocrates- Socratic MethodPlato- The Republic; rule by philosopher-kingsAristotle- Politics; live in a stateLegacy of GreeceNatural Laws- use of reason and intelligence to discoverDirect DemocracyThree Branches of Government

Rome Develops a RepublicRepublic- power rests with citizens who have the right to elect the leaders who make governmental decisions; indirect democracyPatricians vs. PlebeiansPlebeians could vote but not hold government positions

Roman GovernmentTwelve TablesWritten law code to protect plebeiansAll free citizens had the right to protection under law and laws would be fairly administeredRepublican GovernmentDictator- times of crisisTwo ConsulsSenate- PatriciansTwo assembles- Plebeians

7Roman LawAll citizens had the right to equal treatment under the lawInnocent until proven guiltyBurden of proof rested in the accuserUnfair laws could be set asideJustinian Law Code- a government of laws, not of men

Legacy of RomeRepublicIndividual is a citizen in a state not a subjectWritten law code

Judeo-Christian TraditionPrologue Section 2Judaism Hebrews were monotheists who believed in one godPracticed JudaismPeople had dignity simply by being a child of God and each person was responsible for the choices they made; emphasis on the worth of the individual

Jewish Law Teaches MoralityMoses forms a covenant with GodTen Commandments- code of morality and ethics; rules of social and religious behaviorProphets taught that people should oppose injustice and oppression and the community should assist the unfortunate

ChristianityThe Teachings of ChristianityLove for God, their neighbors, their enemies, and themselvesJesus was thought as the king of the Jews and was crucified Christianity Teaching of Jesus Christ

Christianity (cont.)The Spread of Christianity Apostle Paul spread Christianity and stressed the importance of equality for all human beingsReligion would welcome any converts

Rome Spreads Judeo-Christian IdeasJewish Diaspora- spread their beliefs that all people had the right to be treated with justice and dignityChristianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire

IslamMonotheistic religion based of the teachings of MuhammadQuran was a collection of teaching from god delivered to MuhammadEmphasized dignity of all human beings and he brotherhood of all people Muslims were required to offer charity to those in need

Legacy of Monotheistic Religionsthe duty of the individual and the community to combat oppressionworth of the individualequality of people before God

Renaissance Roman Catholic Church- During the middle ages it controlled all political, social, and religious aspects of lifeRenaissance- renewed interest in classical Greek culture; fueled by the invention of the printing pressPrepared men for public service instead of service for the churchEncouraged human potential and achievementIndividualism

ReformationReformation- religious reform movement in the 19th century led by the ProtestantsMartin Luther- criticized the Church of selling pardons Salvation came through faith in God not good worksProtestantismInterpret the bible by themselvesPeople could find individual paths to God; didnt need churchQuestioned political authority

Legacy of the Renaissance and ReformationBy challenging authority the Reformation indirectly contributed to the growth of democracyIntroduced individuals to readingEmphasis on the Individual

Democracy Develops in EnglandPrologue Section 3Reforms in Medieval EnglandWilliam, duke of Normandy in France, invades England and defeats the Anglo-Saxons at the Battle of Hastings (1066)Ended FeudalismBegan Centralized GovernmentDevelopment of DemocracyHenry IICreated a Jury Trial instead of feudal courtsRoyal judge would visit each countryCommon Law- reflected customs and principles established over time

Reforms in Medieval EnglandKing JohnFought an unsuccessful and costly war against the France; he tried to raise taxes to pay for the warIn 1215 angry nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta (Great Chapter)Limited the power of the king by having them govern according to law and guaranteed individual rights and libertiesDue Process of Law- judgment by his peers; king could not punish subjects

Model ParliamentModel Parliament (Edward I needed taxes)Parliament- Englands national legislatureHouse of Lords- nobles and bishopsHouse of Commons- knights and burgessesLimited power of monarch and established representation Parliament Grows StrongerEventually The House of Commons grew equal to the House of Lords and Parliament could vote on taxes, pass laws, and advise royal policiesDivine Right of Kings- kings power came from GodStuart Family and James IConflict with PuritansStar Chamber- royal courtMoney

Parliament Overthrows the King

Charles I asks for money and signs the Petition of RightNo taxing without Parliaments consentCouldnt imprison citizens illegallyCouldnt house troopsCouldnt maintain military government in peacetimeIn 1642 English civil war broke out; royalists vs. antiroyalistsOliver Cromwell won control; antiroyalistsEstablishment of Constitutional MonarchyCromwell established the Commonwealth of England but eventually turned it into a Protectorate military dictatorshipRestoration- parliament restored the monarchy under Charles Stuart IIHabeas Corpus- prevents police from detaining a person wrongfully

Glorious Revolution (1689)William and Mary invade England and start the Glorious RevolutionParliament limited the power of the king and could control the succession to the throneEstablished a Constitutional Monarchy-powers of the ruler are restricted by the constitutionBill of Rights- formal summary of rights and liberties believed to be essential to peopleProtected free speechCould not tax or raise an army during peace timeExcessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment were forbidden

The Enlightenment and Democratic RevolutionPrologue Section 4Enlightenment ThinkersEnlightenment- intellectual movement that tried to use the principles of reason and the methods of science to all aspects of societyInfluenced by the Scientific RevolutionThomas HobbesLeviation; people were by nature selfish and ambitious and needed an absolute monarchySocial Contract-people submitted to the authoritarian ruler to prevent disorderJohn LockeProblem was that the king failed to protect the rights of the peopleNatural Rights- right to life, liberty, and propertyPeople had an absolute right to rebel if the government did not protect these rights; self-government

Enlightenment ThinkersVoltaireFavor of tolerance, freedom of religion, and free speechJean-Jacques RousseauThe Social Contract- an agreement among free individuals to create a government that would respond to the people willGovernment from the consent of the governedBaron de MontesquieuSeparation of Powers- divided into three branchesLegislature- make lawsExecutive- enforce lawsCourts (Judicial)- interpret laws

The Beginnings of Democracy in AmericaFrench and Indian War- battle b/w France and Britain for North AmericaSeven Years War in EuropeAfter the victory Britain felt the colonies should help pay the cost of the war; tax themStamp Act of 1765- no taxation without representationNo western movement for colonistsAmerican RevolutionBattle of Lexington and Concord- April 17th, 1775Declaration of Independence- July 4th, 1776End of Revolution- 1781Articles of Confederation- weak central government

Enlightenment shapes the Constitution Representative Government- citizens elect representatives to make laws and policies for them (Rousseau)Federal System- powers of government were divided among federal, or central, government and the states, or local, governmentsSeparation of Powers- executive, legislative, and judicial (Montesquieu) and checks and balances

The French RevolutionCauses:Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette took the throne with debts building up in 1774Inequality among clergy and nobility vs. commoners; only the poor paid taxesEnlightenment Ideas and the American RevolutionEarly Reforms of the RevolutionEstates-General was broken up and commoners formed the National AssemblyStorming of Bastille- prisonDeclaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (Dec. of Ind.)Rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppressionReign of TerrorRadicals that killed or imprisoned opponents

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