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CLASSICAL GREECE ANCIENT ROME. UNIT THREE. GEOGRAPHY OF GREECE. LOCATION Southeastern Europe Made up many mountains , isolated valleys , small islands. SEAS link to the rest of the world. 1. BLACK SEA - north 2. MEDITERRANEAN SEA - south 3. AEGEAN SEA - east - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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GEOGRAPHY OF GREECELOCATION Southeastern EuropeMade up many mountains, isolated valleys, small islands

SEAS link to the rest of the world1. BLACK SEA - north2. MEDITERRANEAN SEA - south3. AEGEAN SEA - east4. IONIAN SEA westSEAS important to TRAVEL and TRADEGreeks lacked natural resources timber, precious metals, and usable farmland

MOUNTAINSCovered three-fourths of GreeceDivided Greece into different regionsCommunities developed independent political units called: CITY-STATES

CITY-STATESMain Political Unit in Ancient GreeceAlso known as POLISPOLIS made up of city and surrounding countrysideParts of POLIS included:ACROPOLIS fortified hilltop for defenseAGORA central gathering spot in the city marketplace, theatres


TYPES OF GOVERNMENTCity-States had many different forms of government:1. MONARCHY rule by a king2. ARISTOCRACY rule by nobles3. OLIGARCHY rule by few powerful people4.DEMOCRACY rule by the people

EARLY GREECEEarly important Greek city was MycenaeMycenaeans fought a famous ten year war against the city of TroyTrojans kidnapped Helen wife of Greek king starting TROJAN WARWithout written records much of early Greek history was passed down through stories - most famous by Homer {Iliad, Odyssey}

ATHENS & SPARTA2 most Important CITY-STATES in Greece were: ATHENS & SPARTAThey both shared GREEK culture but developed different ways of life

SPARTASPARTA built a MILITARY state society revolved around PHYSICAL training and the MILITARYSpartan Government OLIGARCHY (most had no VOICE first loyalty/ DUTY was to SpartaDid not promote individual FREEDOMLittle progress in the ARTS and SCIENCES

ATHENS450 B.C. Athens developed first DEMOCRACYEmphasized well-rounded EDUCATION goal: sound MIND & BODYIdeal citizen EDUCATED, LOYAL, willing to be involved in governmentAthenians also believed in STRONG healthy citizens

OLYMPICSMost famous sports festival OLYMPIC GamesSeries of athletic competitions among city-states of Ancient GreeceGames honored ZEUS {father of all Greek Gods/Goddesses}Games were held in OLYMPIARecords first kept track in 776 B.C. Games ended in 394 A.D. {outlawed by the Romans}Held every four years (there were 292 Ancient Olympic Games)Basis for todays modern day OLYMPIC GAMES

During the games - an Olympic Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the games in safetyPrizes for winners were wreaths of laurel leavesOlympics also featured religious celebrations and artistic competitionsStatue of Zeus at Olympia was counted as one of the seven wonders of the ancient worldRunning events, a pentathlon (consisting of a jumping event, discus and javelin throws, a foot race, and wrestling), boxing, wrestling, pankration, and equestrian

PERSIAN WARSSeries of wars between GREECE and PERSIAN EmpireGreeks lived in IONIA {located in Anatolia} Persians conquer 498 - 493 B.C. - Athens helps Ionians rebel against PersiansPersians win but King Darius vows revenge on Athens 490 B.C. Persians {25,000 men} sail across the AEGEAN to attack AthensPersians land at MARATHON

BATTLE AT MARATHON10,000 Athenian Soldiers defeated the PersiansWHY? Athenian fighting formation PHALANX, better prepared/trained, better equipment/uniformsPersians lost 6,000 men; Athenians lost less than 200 menAthenian messenger PHEIDIPPIDES ran the 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to inform the city of the victory {According to legend Pheidippides then collapsed and died}This heroic act inspired the Marathon running race

GREEK PHALANX FORMATION BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAE 480 B.C. Persians assemble ENORMOUS army King Darius had died succeeded by son XERXESPersians take different route to invade Greece came to a narrow pass at THERMOPLYAE7000 Greeks {led by 300 Spartans} stopped Persian advance for THREE daysA traitor informs Persians about a secret path around the passSpartans send rest of Greeks back to Athens all are 300 were killed

Important Spartans fierce RESISTANCE gave VALUABLE time to prepare for a decisive battle that would determine the outcome of the war. THEMISTOCLES has Athenians evacuate the city turn the war into a NAVAL battleXerxes arrives in Athens burns city {destroyed Parthenon}

BATTLE AT THERMOPYLAEThe Greek victory at the battle of Salamis destroyed the Persian navy and forced Xerxes to retreat back to Asia. The final battle took place a year later in 479 B.C. when a full-strength Spartan led Greek army defeated the Persians at the battle of Plataea ending the Persian wars.



GOLDEN AGE OF GREECEAfter defeat of PERSIANS Greece entered a GOLDEN AGENew heights in: DRAMA, POETRY, ARCHITECTURE, SCULPTURE, SCIENCE, PHILOSOPHYATHENS leads the way in this Golden Age leader of Athens PERICLES {ruled Athens from 460 429 B.C.}

GOALS OF PERICLES1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy introduced DIRECT democracy {citizens rule DIRECTLY not through representatives had to be a citizen women, slaves,males under 18 were not}2. Hold & Strengthen the Empire helped organize the Delian League to protect Greece3. GLORIFY Athens best example rebuilding of PARTHENON {23,000 foot building honoring goddess ATHENA}


PELOPONNESIAN WAR 431 404 B.C.Athens grew in wealth, prestige, & power during the Golden AgeResulted in a CIVIL war between Athens and SPARTAAthens had a stronger navy - Sparta stronger armyTurning point in the war plague struck Athens killing PericlesSPARTA was victorious but unable to UNITE all of GreeceMain Impact of the war weakened Greece as a wholeLeft it vulnerable and allowed it to be CONQUERED

GREEK PHILOSOPHERS After the war many began to question valuesGreek Thinkers tried to use OBSERVATION and REASON to understand why things happenedGreeks called these thinkers Philosophers lovers of WISDOMThere were 3 famous Greek Philosophers:1. Socrates2. Plato3. Aristotle



ALEXANDERS EMPIREThe Peloponnesian War weakened Greece Macedonia {north of Greece} invaded in 338B.C. took control under King Philip II336 B.C. Philip is murdered at his daughters weddingPhilips 20 year old son Alexander takes over Alexander built a huge empire that included:*GREECE*PERSIA*EGYPT*parts of INDIAAlexander becomes known as ALEXANDER THE GREAT

ALEXANDER THE GREATAlexander had been a student of ARISTOTLEAlexander earned the title "the Great" due to his success as a military commander He never lost a battle - despite typically being outnumbered This was due to use of terrain - phalanx and cavalry tactics - bold strategy - fierce loyalty of his troops

WAR WITH PERSIA Three Important Battles in war with Persia:334 B.C. Battle at Granicus333 B.C. Battle at Issue332 B.C. Battle at GaugamelaAlexander The Great defeats Persian King Darius III332 B.C. conquered Egypt326 B.C. reached India323 B.C. Alexander dies at the age of 32

HELLENISTIC CULTUREAlexander wanted: meld conquered cultures with GreeksBEST of the BEST of the EAST with the WEST {Alexander himself took a Persian wife}Period of mixing cultures (cultural DIFFUSION) became known as the HELLENISTIC AGEHELLENISTIC CULTURE mixture of:Egyptian, Greek, Persian, IndianCenter of Hellenistic world: ALEXANDRIA, Egypt

HELLENISTIC ACCOMPLISHMENTSASTRONOMY Sun is bigger than EarthMATHEMATICS Euclids Geometry; Archimedes value of pi, Pythagorean TheoremPHYSICS use of lever/pulleyPHILSOPHY Stoicism: people should live virtuous livesART sculpture: Colossus of Rhodes