 mr. odren chapter four: classical civilization in the mediterranean: greece and rome

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  • Mr. OdrenChapter Four: Classical Civilization in the Mediterranean: Greece and Rome

  • Significantly influence Mediterranean societiesBy 550 BCE, founder Cyrus the Great established the Persian Empire.Advanced iron technology.Zoroastrianism (monotheistic religion, system of rewards and punishments, belief in afterlife). Trade that connected them to India, Egypt, GreecePersian Royal RoadConquered by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE. Persian Empire550 BCE 331 BCE

  • Persian ruler Darius invades Ionia (in Turkey), but faces revolts which are supported by Athens. After crushing these revolts, Darius wanted revenge against Athens for helping these revolts.Invaded Greece but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon.Darius son Xerxes leads the second Persian invasion of Greece and wins at the Battle of Thermopylae, leading to the torching of Athens.Athens and Sparta joined forces to defeat the Persians; ultimately defeat the Persians with Athenian navy at the Battle of Salamis.Persian War500 BCE 449 BCE

  • Ancient Greece

  • Minoan culture - island of CreteTraded with other civilizations (Egypt, Asia Minor, Greece) by 2000 BCEFew things are known (script cant be deciphered)Very peaceful seafaring societyWorship primarily goddessesMycenaean culture Peloponnesus, 1400 BCESpread cities across GreeceLeft behind many artifactsSociety advanced through conquestDefeated the MinoansGreek Precursors

  • Mountainous, hilly, and rugged, which made communication and centralization of communities and government difficultThrived as several strong city-states, not a unified political unitVery little available farmlandOn the other hand, jagged coastlines provided easy access to the sea (fishing and sea trading become important)Landscapes

  • Polis: a city-stateSociety who lived in the city and cultivated the surrounding countrysideUnder the influence of a single governmentCity center: the acropolis and the agora Political, religious, cultural center Community of citizens Political Institutions: Greece

  • Athens Golden Age under Pericles: science, philosophy, artsReliant on sea tradeinitially an aristocracy, but gradually morphs into democracySpartamilitary oligarchyaristocratic government focuses on strong military statelarge slave populationHeavily agricultural

    Athens vs. Sparta

  • Monarchy: rule by a king (Mycenaean period)Democracy: power by the people (. . . actually power by the citizens)All citizens administered the workings of government Citizens- free adult men (10-20% of population)Oligarchy: rule of the fewA government by a small group of wealthy citizensSocial mobility allowed people to join the oligarchyGovernment Types in Greece

  • Height of Athenian democracy reached under aristocrat Pericles (443-429 BCE)This was also a Golden Age in Athens (science, philosophy, arts)Direct democracy: not ruled through elected representatives. Assemblies, created by Cleisthenes, were formed by adult male citizens and were venues by which citizens could shape policies.Athenian DemocracyCleisthenes, father of Athenian democracy

  • Emphasized the power of human reasonSocrates (470-399 BCE)- Teacher, questioned Athenian values, religion, customs and laws, put to deathPlato (437-347 BCE)- founded the Academy, school of philosophy, is utopia achievable?Aristotle- (384-322 BCE)- attended the Academy, taught Alexander the Great; constructs arguments through use of logicGreek Philosophy

  • Monumental construction, square or rectangular in shape, columns Greek Architecture

  • Athens had grown from a polis to an empire, and angered other city-states, mainly Sparta.Athens and Sparta fought for control over Greece.Athens had a superior navy to control Aegean Sea; Sparta had a superior military.Athens suffered a devastating plague during the course of the war while Athens' navy was defeated. Athens surrendered. Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE)

  • Spartan Strategy:Offensive on landAthenian Strategy:Defend on landOffensive on sea

  • With discord between all of the city-states in Greece during the Peloponnesian War, it was very easy for Philip II of Macedon to take over Greece. Dies before he can conquer Greek city-statesPhilip II of Macedon

  • Philip IIs son, Alexander the Great, finishes his fathers ambitions.Alexander extended the Macedonian Empire throughout the Middle East and into Egypt.Alexander the Great(Reigns 336-323 BCE)

  • Term for the period of Alexanders rule and that of his generals,.Characterized by blend of Greek and Middle Eastern culturesLong-distance trade flourished, Hellenic philosophy (stoicism: use powers of reason to lead virtuous lives and assist others)Euclidean geometry; Studies of human anatomy and physiology by Galen; Eratosthenes calculates circumference of EarthError promoted during this era: astronomer Ptolemy expounded geocentric theory of universe (earth as center). This is accepted as truth until the 17th century.Ends 146 BCE, with conquest of Greek peninsula by Rome.Hellenistic Age

  • 800 BCE: Rome begins as a kingdom509 BCE: Roman monarch deposed by Roman aristocracy; a republic is created.Roman Republic begins a period of expansion in Mediterranean.

    Ancient Rome:The Roman RepublicOn the eve of the collapse of the Roman Republic, 45 BCE

  • Series of three wars between the Roman Empire and the Carthaginian Empire of North Africa. First Punic War (264-241 BCE): fought in Sicily and northern coast in Africa; Rome won and Carthage pays tribute to RomeSecond Punic War (218-201 BCE): Hannibal (military commander) invaded Italy from the north via the Alps with elephants, but Rome fought back in Italy and in Carthage; Carthaginian Empire then exists only as the city of CarthageThird Punic War (149-146 BCE): Rome invades and takes Carthage, thoroughly destroying the city.Success in these wars makes Rome the controller of the Mediterranean Sea.Punic Wars(264 246 BCE)

  • Power struggles between generals emerged and one of them, Julius Caesar, came to power in 45 BCE.Roman Republic dissolves, Caesar assassinated in 44 BCE Octavian, later Augustus Caesar, became the first Roman emperor.Roman Republic Roman EmpireBeginning of the Pax Romana (27 BCE 180 CE). Ends with death of Marcus AureliusRoman Empire

  • Era of peace and prosperitySystem of public works (bridges, aqueducts, roads) that connect to Silk RoadsLatin promoted unity in empireCommon coinage facilitated tradeStadiums built for entertainment for citizensHighway danger decreasedJesus is born in Roman province of Judea, and Christianity spreads quickly and easily because of Roman roads and trade routesPax Romana

  • Roman RepublicThe Senate (members of the aristocracy) comprised the government. Senators held all executive offices in Rome.Two Consuls shared executive power. If a problem arose, the Senate could appoint a dictator to hold emergency power for 6 months.450 BCE: laws were codified (written down) in the Twelve Tables.Roman EmpireAn emperor has primary executive power.Conquered peoples were allowed a good amount of self-rule providing they did not rebel against the emperors will.Many in conquered regions were granted citizenship.

    Government in Rome

  • Twelve Tables, 450 BCESignificant Roman contribution on Roman empire and Western legal traditionsAllows Rome to expand its laws and system of justice throughout the empireAssorted principles:A defendant is innocent unless proven guilty by a court of lawDefendants have the right to confront their accusers in a court of lawJudges may set aside laws they feel are unjust

    Roman Law

  • Used Greek themes in architecture but expanded upon those ideas (cultural diffusion).Built larger and more elaborate buildings, some with domes and archesAqueducts: convey water long-distances over obstaclesStadiums: gladiator contests, entertainmentRoman Architecture

  • In 313 CE, Constantine adopted Christianity. Establishes a second capital at Constantinople (originally Byzantium)Allows practice of Christianity in empireWestern portion begins to decline, while Eastern portion begins to thriveChristianity in Rome

  • A slow but decisive fall over 250 years ended when the western portion of the Roman Empire was overtaken in 476 CE by Germanic rulers.Decline caused by several different problems:High taxes and inflation decline in tradeDecreased money flow into empire as expansion slowsDecline of agriculture and poor harvestsInvasions from the Goths, Vandals, Franks, Huns and OstrogothsInterference by military generals in governmentDifficulty of ruling such a large empireIneffective emperors more concerned with pleasurable lives than ruling wiselyEpidemic diseases (malaria)Decline of Roman Empire

  • Pythagoras: develops Pythagorean Theorem Ptolemy: proposed suns motion around stationary earth Homer: wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey Hippocrates: believed to have written Hippocratic Oath Drama: tragedies explored limitations of humans and expectations of gods, while comedies satirized public officialsGreek and Roman Cultural Advancements

  • Patriarchy: Husband and father in control of womenHowever, women were active in small businesses, such as farming and artisan businesses, and could own property. Also, elite women yielded considerable influence among their families.Women had fewer legal rights than men.Society in Greece and Rome

  • Polytheistic religions: gods represent natural phenomena but took on human formsOlympics, first held in 776 BCE, are to honor the godsRomans build their system of religion off of the Greeks pantheon.People believed what they did for the gods directly impacted their daily lives.Gods are imperfect.Patron gods, ceremonies, festivalsReligion in An