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  • ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL GREECE

    CIVILIZATION COMES TO EUROPE

  • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Land

    Mountains dominate land; cross land travel difficult

    Fertile river valleys were center of settlement

    River valleys formed basis of polis

    No place more than a few miles from sea

    Outdoor life common due to temperate climate

    The Sea Greece is a series of peninsulas, islands

    Sea travel easier than land communication

    Most Greeks took to the sea

    Economy Agriculture: Grains, honey, olives, grapes

    Herding: Goats, sheep, cattle

    Trade: Necessary to make up for lack of resources

  • PHYSICAL MAP OF AREA

  • MINOAN SOCIETY Knossos

    Minoan society arose on Crete, late 3rd millennium B.C.E. Takes name from legendary king of Knossos, Minos Lavish palaces at Knossos, between 2000 and 1700 B.C.E. Linear A, a kind of written language, is found

    Island of Crete From 2200 to 1450 B.C.E., center of Mediterranean commerce Received early influences from Phoenicia and Egypt Established colonies on Cyprus and islands in the Aegean Sea

    Society Much evidence of egalitarian society; women had rights Agriculture was important: grapes, olives, fishing, wheat Trade was very important: marble, artifacts, cloth

    Decline of Minoan Society After 1700 B.C.E., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis After 1450 B.C.E., wealth attracted a number of invaders By 1100 B.C.E., Crete fell under foreign (Hellenic) domination

  • THE ISLAND OF CRETE

  • MYCENAEAN GREECE Mycenaean society

    Indo-European immigrants settled in area, 2000 B.C.E.

    Adapted Minoan Linear A into their script Linear B

    Fortified agricultural settlements in Peloponnesus

    Most important settlement was Mycenae

    Society resembled Aryan: emphasis on war, trade

    Kingdoms ruled by strongest of nobles; constant strife

    Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean 1100 to 800 BCE Mycenaeans engaged in Trojan war, about 1200 B.C.E.

    Troy may have been a Hittite city-state and trade rival

    Tomb of Agamemnon, Troy excavated by von Schliemann

    Recorded by Homer in the Illiad and the Odyssey

    More invasions by Hellenic tribes

    Sea Peoples Later Hellenic invaders moved by sea along coasts

    Seemed to have raided into Palestine, Egypt as Philistines

  • ANCIENT GREECE

  • THE GREEK DARK AGES

    800 TO 500 BCE

    Called Dark Ages due to loss of writing

    Age remembered through oral traditions

    A period of migration and warfare

    Hellenes spread to Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, Cyprus

    The Hellenes

    Indo-Europeans who settled in area

    Tribes include Dorians, Attics, Achaeans

    Originally aristocratic societies

    Warfare, slavery, and trade common

  • GREEK TRIBES

  • THE POLIS Greek City-State

    Polis = city-state; Poleis = city-states

    Metropolis = city of polis

    Acropolis = fortified center of city

    Boundaries shaped by geography

    Terms of politics come from POLIS Politics, politic, politician, polite, polity

    Police, metropolis, metroplex

    Most important Athens

    Sparta

  • POLIS OF ATTICA

  • POLITICAL FORMS Archon: Greek for ruler English archy

    Kratien: Greek for to rule English cracy Demos: People Democracy (direct election)

    Aristos: The Best Aristocracy (nobles)

    Oligos: The Few Oligarchy (rule by select few)

    Monos: One Monarchy (rule by a king)

    Di: Two Diarchy (Spartas state had 2 kings)

    An: None Anarchy (No government)

    Theos: God Theocracy (Rule by priests, religion)

    Geron: Old Man Gerontocracy (rule by elderly)

    Pater: Father Patriarchy (rule by males)

    Mater: Mother Matriarchy (rule by women)

    Auto: Self Autocracy (dictatorial rule)

    Tyrannos: Tyrant Tyranny (rule by a dictator)

    Ethnos: Ethnic or locals Ethnarchy (rule by the local people)

  • SPARTA Sparta

    Situated in a fertile region of the Peloponnesus

    Began to extend control during the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E.

    Reduced neighboring peoples to the status of helots, or servants

    By 6th century B.C.E., helots outnumbered Spartans by 10 to 1

    Maintained domination by a powerful military machine

    Spartan society Discouraged social distinction, observed austere lifestyle

    Distinction was drawn by prowess, discipline, and military talent

    Commitment to military values was strong

    Society was a military aristocracy; state ruled by two kings

    Young boys, girls educated in military barracks

    After marriage, men still lived at barracks; women ran homes

    Women: surprisingly free in comparison to other Greek women

    All merchants were foreigners licensed by state

  • LACONIA: SPARTA

  • ATHENS Athens

    Population growth, economic development caused political strain

    Sought to negotiate order by democratic principles

    Citizenship was open to free adult males

    Foreigners, slaves, and women had no rights

    Athenian society Maritime trade brought about prosperity

    Aristocratic landowners were principal beneficiaries

    Owners of small plots began to sell lands, some became slaves

    Class tension became intensified, the 6th century B.C.E.

    Solon and Athenian democracy Solon forged a compromise between the classes

    Opened polis councils for any male citizen

    Pericles (ca. 443-429 B.C.E.) The most popular democratic leader of Athens Ruled Athens during its Golden Age

  • GREECE & THE LARGER WORLD

    Greeks founded more than 400 colonies Controlled Black, Aegean, Adriatic, Ionian Seas

    Settled Sicily, S. Italy, Corsica, France, Spain, Africa

    Settled Coasts of Yugoslavia, Albania, Turkey, Cyprus

    Effects of Greek colonization Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands

    Facilitate exchanges between peoples, cultures

    Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions

    Stimulated development of surrounding areas

    Spread civilization to ancient, Neolithic areas

    Warfare increased

    Technology stimulated: naval, navigation, astronomy

  • THE GREEK WORLD

  • GREEK MILITARY Based on citizen soldiers

    Lightly armed, armored foot soldiers (Hoplites) Carry shields, long spear All citizens had to furnish own arms, armor All citizens expected to fight in army, navy All citizens had military training in school

    Fought in massed formations called Phalanx Very useful in rugged terrain; used 10 long pikes Easily defeats massed cavalry favored by others

    Greek navy Rowed vessels called galleys

    Most famous was the trireme or three oar banked Rowed by free citizens Fought by ramming other vessels; than hand to hand

    Greek fleets included larger vessels

    Equites or mounted troops were aristocrats

  • THE PERSIAN WARS The Persian War (500-479 B.C.E.)

    Cyrus and Darius controlled Anatolia

    Greek cities on Ionian coast revolted, 500 B.C.E.

    Darius Invasion The battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E.

    Greeks led by Spartans and Athens battled Persia to a draw

    Xerxes Invasion To fight Persians, Athenians build a wall of wood, or a navy

    Xerxes seized, burned Athens

    Athenian navy destroys Persian in the battle of Salamis, 480 B.C.E.

    Persian army retreated back to Anatolia, 479 B.C.E.

    The Delian League Alliance among Greek poleis against Persian threat

    Military force from Athens, finance from other poleis

    As Persian threat subsided, poleis no longer wanted to participate

    Athens uses navy to turn Delian League into Athenian Empire

  • PELOPONNESIAN WAR Pericles Rebuilds Athens

    Athens experiences a Golden Age

    Pericles turns Delian states into Athenian colonies

    30 Year Civil War (431-404 B.C.E.) Athens and Allies vs. Sparta and Allies

    Costly victories/defeats and plague wreck city

    Unconditional surrender of Athens, 404 B.C.E.

    Hegemony first by Sparta and then by Thebes Constant warfare between leagues, allies

    Spartan hegemony replaced by Theban

    Greece horribly weakened

    Athens remained intellectual center of Greece

  • RISE OF MACEDONIA The kingdom of Macedon

    A frontier state north of peninsular Greece Partially Hellenized society

    Philip of Macedon (re. 359-336 B.C.E.) Built a powerful army, overcame the power of clan leaders Began to offend Greece from 350 B.C.E. Brought Greece under control by 338 B.C.E. Murdered possibly by wife and son

    Alexander of Macedon and his conquests Educated by Aristotle; gifted in many areas At age 20, Alexander succeeded Philip Invaded Persia, controlled Ionia and Anatolia, 333 B.C.E. By 331 B.C.E., controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis Crossed Indus River by 327 B.C.E.

    Died in 323 B.C.E. at age of 33

  • ALEXANDERS EMPIRE

  • HELLENISTIC EMPIRES The Hellenistic Era: Age of Alexander and his successors

    Saw a blending of Hellenic (Greek) and Asian, Egyptian traditions A Greek layer of upper class ruled over an Asians, Egyptians

    The Antigonid empire in Greece, Macedonia and Thrace Continuous tension between the Antigonid rulers and Greek cities The economy of Athens flourished again through trade Overpop

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