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Chapter 2- Ancient Greece & Rome 2.1- Ancient Greece. Early Greek Civilization The Polis: Center of Greek Life Sparta Athens Classical Greece The Culture of Classical Greece Alexander the Great. Early Greek Civilization. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2- Ancient Greece & Rome 2.1- Ancient Greece

Chapter 2- Ancient Greece & Rome2.1- Ancient GreeceEarly Greek CivilizationThe Polis: Center of Greek LifeSpartaAthensClassical GreeceThe Culture of Classical GreeceAlexander the GreatEarly Greek CivilizationThe mountains and the seas were important geographic influences on Greece

Early Greek CivilizationMycenaean civilization flourished between 1600 and 1100 B.C.

Greece then entered a Dark Age when population declined and there was less food.

Early Greek CivilizationThe works of Homer appeared at the end of the Dark AgeThe Iliad and Odyssey are epic poems The Greeks regarded the Iliad and Odyssey as historyHomer gave the Greeks an ideal past peopled with heroesGenerations of Greek males used these poems as models of heroism and honor

The Polis: Center of Greek LifeBy 750 B.C., the polis, or city-state, had become the central focus of Greek lifeThe polis was the town, city, or village and its surrounding countrysideThe people met for political, religious, social, and economic activities

The Polis: Center of Greek LifeCity-states varied in sizeMost were between a few hundred and several thousand peopleAthens was one of the largest, with a population of more than three hundred thousand by 400 B.C.The polis was a community of people who shared a common identity and common goals

The Polis: Center of Greek LifeGreek states developed different forms of governmentSome city-states became democracies, ruled by manyOthers became oligarchies, ruled by the fewTwo of the most powerful city-states, Athens and Sparta, illustrate the differences

The Greeks felt that rights also meant responsibilities. What might be some responsibilities of a citizen in a Greek city-state?Possible answers: Some responsibilities of a citizen in a Greek city-state include participating in government, paying taxes, defending the polis, and providing for others.

SpartaBetween 800 and 600 B.C., the lives of the Spartans were rigidly controlled and disciplinedBoys learned military discipline, entered the military at age 20, and lived in the barracks until they were 30 At 30, Spartan males were allowed to vote in the assembly and live at home, but they remained in the army until the age of 60Spartan women lived at home while their husbands lived in the barracksSpartan women had more power than women in other Greek city-statesSpartan women supported Spartan values, expecting their husbands and sons to be brave in war

SpartaTwo kings who led the Spartan army headed the oligarchyFive men known as the ephors were responsible for education and the conduct of citizensA council of elders, made up of the two kings and 28 citizens over 60 years of age, decided on issues the assembly of male citizens would vote onThe assembly did not debate, but only votedSparta closed itself off from the outside worldForeigners and travel were discouragedSpartans frowned upon new ideas and the artsOnly the art of war mattered

AthensA king ruled early AthensBy the seventh century B.C., it was ruled by an oligarchy of aristocrats who owned the best land and controlled political lifeNear the end of the seventh century B.C., economic problems led to political turmoilMany Athenian farmers were sold into slavery for nonpayment of their debts to aristocratsCries arose to cancel the debts and give land to the poorCivil war threatened

AthensThe aristocrats gave power to Solon in 594 B.C.Solon favored reformHe canceled the debts but did not give land to the poorThis left the aristocrats in power and the poor unable to obtain land

AthensIn 508 B.C., Cleisthenes, another reformer, gained the upper handHe created a new council of five hundred to supervise foreign affairs, oversee the treasury, and propose lawsHe gave to the Athenian assembly, composed of male citizens, authority to pass laws after free and open debateFor this reason, Cleisthenes reforms laid the foundation for Athenian democracy

Classical GreeceClassical Greece is the name given to the period from 500 to 338 B.C.During this time, the Greeks fought two warsThe first war was against the Persians, who were defeated by the unified GreeksAthens took over the leadership of the Greek world after the Persian War.

Classical GreeceAthens took over the leadership of the Greek world after the Persian WarUnder Pericles, the dominant figure in Athenian politics from 461 to 429 B.C., Athens expanded its empire, while democracy flourished at homePericles created a direct democracyEvery male citizen could participate in the general assembly and vote on major issuesThis period was called the Age of Pericles

Classical GreeceThe Greek world was divided between the Athenian Empire and SpartaAthens and Sparta had built very different societies, and they distrusted each otherAfter a series of disputes, the second war of Classical Greece, the Great Peloponnesian War, broke out in 431 B.C. The civil war lasted until 405 B.C.Athens surrendered when the Athenian fleet was destroyed.The Great Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek city-states and ruined any hope of unity among them.For the next 66 years, Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled for dominationThese internal struggles caused the Greeks to ignore the growing power of Macedonia, an oversight that cost the Greeks their freedomThe Culture of Classical GreeceThe standards of classical Greek art dominated most of Western art historyClassical Greek art was concerned with expressing eternal idealsThe style was based on reason, moderation, balance, and harmonyArt was meant to civilize the emotionsThe most important architectural form was the templeThe greatest example is the Parthenonbuilt in the fifth century B.C.dedicated to the patron goddess of Athens, AthenaThe Parthenon exemplifies the principles of classical architecture: calm, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detailThe Culture of Classical GreeceThe classical style of Greek sculpture depicted idealized, yet lifelike, male nudesGreek sculptors did not seek to achieve realism

The Culture of Classical GreeceThe dramas we see today are the descendants of Greek dramaPlays were presented as part of religious festivalsThe original Greek dramas were tragedies, presented in trilogies around a common themeOnly one complete trilogy survives today, the Oresteia by AeschylusIt tells the story of Agamemnon, a Trojan War hero, and his return homeGreek tragedies examined such universal themes as: the nature of good and evilthe rights of individualsthe role of the gods in lifethe nature of human beings

The Culture of Classical GreecePhilosophy (love of wisdom) refers to an organized system of rational thoughtEarly Greek philosophers were concerned with the nature of the universeSocrates, Plato, and Aristotle are considered to be three of the greatest philosophers of the Western world

The Culture of Classical GreeceSocrates developed the Socratic methoda question-and-answer format to lead pupils to understand things for themselves based on Socrates belief that knowledge is already present within each of usThe task of philosophy is to call forth knowledge.Socrates said the unexamined life is not worth living.The belief in the individuals ability to reason was an important contribution of Greek thought

The Culture of Classical GreecePlato was one of Socrates students and considered by many to be the greatest Western philosopherPlato explained his views on government in a work entitled The RepublicPlato believed that people could not achieve a good life unless they lived in a just and rational stateThe ideal state has three groups:rulerswarriorscommonersLed by a philosopher-king, men and women would have the same education and equal access to all positions

Plato established a school in Athens called the AcademyThe Culture of Classical GreecePlatos most important pupil was Aristotle, who studied at the academy for 20 yearsAristotle had wide-ranging interests including ethics, logic, politics, poetry, astronomy, geology, biology, and physicsAfter studying and observing existing governments, Aristotle found three forms of government that would rationally direct human affairs: monarchyaristocracyconstitutional government Aristotle preferred a constitutional government

Philip IIThe Greeks viewed the Macedonians to the north as barbariansIn 359 B.C., Philip II became king of MacedoniaHe admired Greek culture and wanted to unite all of Greece under Macedonian rule.At the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 B.C., Philips army crushed the GreeksHe united the Greek city-states in a league under his control and planned to conquer PersiaPhilip was assassinated before he could fulfill his goal

Alexander the GreatAlexander the Great, Philips son, became king of Macedonia at age 20.334 B.C.- invaded the Persian Empireby 331 B.C.-conquered all of the Persian Empire.

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