Rome Before Caesar. I.Relationship of Greece to Rome A.No divide between Greece and Rome 1.political systems: Democracy (different form) Direct Democracy-Greece

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  • Rome Before Caesar

  • Relationship of Greece to Rome No divide between Greece and Rome political systems: Democracy (different form) Direct Democracy-GreeceRepublic-Romesocial organization similarArt, architecture, and culture

  • Differences between Greece, Rome Geography Greece mountainous, Rome flat (effect politics) Greece little farming, Rome agriculturally-based

  • Political differences Fewer city-states Italy (geography) Took over where Greeks had left off Spread its empire not from need of land, but for security of its borders

  • Romulus to Roman Republic Rome starts as a village on Tiber river 700s BC Romulus 753 BC, founded Rome (linked to a Trojan warrior) Simple and insignificant

  • Early InfluencesGreeks southern peninsula Etruscans in north: warlike culture Rome became city-state under Etruscan king 650 BCRomans overthrow Etruscuns 509BCTime for a change: created Republic of Rome Started grand adventure of living the Greek lifestyle

  • Republic Social Organization Two elected consuls, one year terms Senate Patricians Tribunes Plebeians (plebes) Non citizens

  • Early Imperial expansion Driven by need for security Celts wipe out Roman army and almost destroy city by fire (390 BC). Rebuilt: 800 years before conquered again conquest of peninsula - 264 BCDefeat Macedonians and Phillip in 197BC

  • Punic Wars (264-146BC) Rome vs. CarthageRome and Carthage two dynamic powers in Mediterranean 264BC Carthage - near modern day Tunis, founded by Phoenicians, rich traders Fight for control of Mediterranean

  • Second Punic War: (247-183BC) Hannibal great Carthaginian leader 40,000 men, 9000 cavalry, elephants.Take battle to Rome three wins in three years. Ends in siege of city and stand down.

  • Third Punic War: 146BC Rome defeats Carthage Salt the cityNo serious rivals for Rome in Mediterranean

  • Rome: From Republic to Empire

  • The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire;133 BC44 BC (late Republic, after conquests by republican generals)AD 14 (death of Augustus)117 (maximum extension)

  • Problems of the Republic Expansion harder to administer from the capital (large) Communication problemsleaders were off in the field-no decisionsrebellion inside and out

  • Political Loyalty Military leadershipLeaders in the field Under Marius (military leader) non-landholders were recruited loyalty to the general, not the Republicreceive land taken from someone else rivals (using the army on each other) Ineffective Senate Calls for reform unansweredstarts to lose control"dictators"given temporary power to reform

  • Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) Started as triumvirate (ruled by three) with Crassus and Pompey - The First Triumvirate Dictator in 47 BC Expanded Roman citizenship Sent poor to colonies Murdered at the Senate - Brutus and group of Ex-Pomeians

  • The Second Triumvirate Octavian (nephew of Caesar) forms alliance with Marc Antony (Caesar's general) and Lepidus Defeat Brutus and conspirators Octavian (west) and Antony (east) go to war Antony, love affair with the queen of Egypt, Cleopatra 31BC, Octavian won Named imperator (supreme military commander)

  • Began the period of the Roman Empire Became known also as "Caesar Augustus," (sole victorious, imperial majesty : Semi-Divine)

  • Early Empire Forces StabilityAugustan Age (31BC-14AD) -100 million people Not a true republic - a military dictatorship Strong control over the empire--governors of provinces directly loyal to Emperor

  • Deceiving the massesRecreated traditional classes: senatorial, patrician, and plebian (nothing is wrong) Senate: all laws were passed to them by the emperor - rubber stamp Continued expansion (something to think about and be entertained by ESCAPE from reality)Cult of Roma - worship of Roman power Stabilize Roman society

  • Pax Romana: The Peace of RomeEnd of expansionThe five "good" emperors (96-180 AD)Rebellions in the provincesEmpire begins to shrink.

  • The home front: Bread and Circuses Economic prosperity (free bread) Social ignorance of the situation (entertainment driven)Disillusioned: Eat drink and be merry

  • THREE IDEALS OF EARLY ROMEINDIVIDUALISMDEMOCRACYINTELLECT (NOT EMOTION)LARGELY ALL GONE BY NOW.