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Greece and Rome:Who Conquered Whom?

Greece Before Roman ConquestThink, always, then that you have been sent to the province of Achaia - Greece true and pure - the land in which civilization, writing, even agriculture are held to have been invented-Pliny the Younger- Letters 8.24Others may fashion more smoothly images of bronze (I for one believe it), evoke living faces from marble, plead causes better, trace with a wand the wanderings of the heavens and foretell the rising of stars-Vergil-Aeneid

Roman descriptions of Greeks, Vergils may not be direct, but basically paints Greeks as more cultured.2Greece Before Roman ConquestGovernmentNumerous poleis -city states- organized around settled centers and surrounding countrysideDifferent modes of governing- Democracy, Oligarchy, KingsSometimes organized into leagues for common defense(i.e. Delian League, Achaean League)Mostly local loyaltyConflict among city states, Peloponnesian war 431-404Democracy(Athens), Oligarchy(Sparta somewhat) , Kings(Macedon(not totally greek, but nearby) and somewhat Sparta)

3Greece Before Roman ConquestCulture and ThoughtPhilosophy- Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, Zeno, etc.

Math and Science-Pythagoras, Euclid, Archimedes

Literature and Arts-Sophocles, HomerMention Parthenon , pagan religion, Plato writes Republic only 20ish years after Rome is sacked by Gauls. Maybe mention Thales too, knew world was round, didnt explain stuff only using gods (600BC)4

School of Athens, Raphael, 1509- Plato, Aristotle in the middle. Plato on the left. 5Rome Gets InvolvedRome drawn into East and Greece area through fighting with Macedon1st Macedonian War(215-205), largely due to Phillip V of Macedon helping Hannibal out2nd Macedonian War(200-196)Declaration of Greek freedom by consul Flaminius after victoryRomans didnt seem to plan to permanently militarily occupy Greece.3rd Macedonian War (171-168) ended Macedonian monarchy168-Battle of PydnaOne more time. 4th Macedonian War(150-148), Macedonia becomes assigned as a provinceSenate tells Achaean League, which had fought with Rome against Macedon, to grant independence to some of the states under its control, they say noLeads to war in 148Lucius Mummius in 146 wins, completely razes Corinth, one of the richest and well known cities in Greece, sells citizens into slaveryEnd of Greek independence from Romeallies in Pergamum come to Romans with their problems with the Macedonians, Rome already dislikes ruler, takes excuse for war- Achaean League supported romans helping them with Macedon at first, only realized consequences too late.

149-another man, Andriscus claims he is king of Macdeon, quickly defeated

Lucius Aemilius Paullus beats persues-phillips son- perseus taken back to rome, marched thorugh streets,


Augustus splits Macedon and Achaea apart after he defeats Antony (30, according to most of my sources)7Greece Under Rome

A little rocky at firstFighting with Mithridates in GreeceCivil Wars waged largely in Greece. Decisive battles (Pharsalus, Actium) in both struggles took place in GreeceBecomes more stable after Augustus takes over8Greece Under RomeEconomic IssuesCopper, lead, bronze, and silver mines in Achaea, but not as rich as areas in SpainOther exports: marble, olive oil, furniture, potteryGreece mountainous mainland and largely infertile landIn the early empire there was economic stagnation and depopulation in parts of Greece Increase in trade led to import of wines and oil which were cheaper than local productsGreece was an economic backwater(Goodman,231) because it became strategically unimportant during the empire. Didnt receive economic support for army which drove economies in other regions

Note, that things improve some as empire goes on, but last point remains true during time of Nero

9Greece Under RomeEconomic IssuesPatronage from Roman emperors mostly went to citiesPeasants could face starvation in hard times as food reserved and stored for city dwellersAccording to writer Galen, peasants had to fall back on unhealthy foods they ate twigs, shoots of trees, and bushes and cooked fresh grassResult: Cities flourished, but land concentrated into hands of few rich men and regions away from cities saw population and economic shrinkage

10Greece Under RomeAssimilationRomans relied on rich to help them control and rule GreeceGreek aristocrats slow to join with elite of rest of empire Held together by continuity of Greek culture traditions, educationFor elite, tension between being Greek and partaking in advantages of joining Roman politics, access to more powerLocal patriotism wore away some as time went onNumber of Greek senators growing quickly by mid 2nd centuryStill some ambivalence,On looking back at 200 years before Nero, Pausinias writes, Greece was struck with universal and utter prostration.Also note tension between Greek ideas about independence of city states and roman desire for control.11Rome Under Greece(?)Graecia capta ferum victorem cepit-HoraceGreek culture had a profound impact on RomeLove for Greek culture, picked up mid 3rd century BC, desire for art, culture, etc.Mid first century BC quite common for Italian aristocrats to go to Athens to get cultural educationAdoption of Greek language by much of Roman aristocracy as sign of high education. Not the other way around.

Captive Greece Captivated/captured its Savage Conqueror"12Rome Under Greece(?)Great Latin writers and speakers, men like Vergil and Cicero, heavily influenced by Greeks Catos son had a Greek tutor for a while and Greek slaves often tutored Roman childrenEmperors even adopted Greek customs, gave lots of money to build up Greece67-Nero in Olympics. Wins every event.Hadrian had a Greek beard apparently and also gave a lot of money for building in Athens

Note Cicero valued the critical approach and line of thinking that Plato and others took. Caesars last words may have been in Greece, according to our lecture and Suetonius, I think, Kai su, teknon And you too, (my) child.13

Greece After RomeDifficult to say exactly when Greece leaves RomeIn late 300s empire splits east, westGreek culture has strong influence in east, what becomes the Byzantine EmpireGreece becomes official language of Byzantine EmpireOutlasts Western Empire which falls around 4761400s, Ottomans conquer GreeceGreece wins Independence in 1830Hosts Olympic games 2004Recent economic crisis

Greeces Spot Among ProvincesUnlike Egypt, Greece was not vital to Empires economyUnlike Gaul, Britain, Greece was not totally Latinized. In fact more the opposite.Greece unique due to the strength and pervasiveness of the impact it had on Rome

Come to Greece!Greece: What happens here, not only does not stay here, but goes on to form the foundation for much of Western civilization and thought.

Cradle of western civilization, as long as you dont come during late republic, civil war years, pretty stable place. Get future told at delphi, see past

18BibliographyBoatwright, Mary Taliaferro, Daniel J. Gargola, and Richard J. A. Talbert. A brief history of the Romans . New York: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.Goodman, Martin, and Jane Sherwood. The Roman World, 44 Bc-ad 180. London: Routledge, 1997.Goldhill, Simon. Being Greek Under Rome : Cultural Identity, the Second Sophistic, and the Development of Empire. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001.Gruen, Erich S. The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1984.Mandelbaum, Allen. The Aeneid of Virgil . New York: Bantam Classic, 1981. Print.Wikipedia contributors. "Roman Greece." Wikipedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia., n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. Woolf, Greg . "Roman Attitudes to Greeks." Roman Attitudes to Greeks. NIVERSITY OF ST. ANDREWS, n.d. Web. 1 May 2011. .

PicturesParthenon: of Athens: Map of Greece: Michael Phelps: Hadrian: Triangle: Temple at Delphi: Art: