hubungan gangguan pendengaran dengan kemampuan bahasa

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  • i i

    HUBUNGAN GANGGUAN PENDENGARAN DENGAN

    KEMAMPUAN BAHASA PADA ANAK SINDROM DOWN

    LAPORAN HASIL PENELITIAN

    KARYA TULIS ILMIAH

    Diajukan sebagai syarat untuk mengikuti ujian hasil

    Karya Tulis Ilmiah mahasiswa program strata-1 kedokteran umum

    ARGE RAVIADI MUHAMMAD

    22010111130067

    PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN SARJANA KEDOKTERAN

    FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN

    UNIVERSITAS DIPONEGORO

    2015

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    KATA PENGANTAR

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    DAFTAR ISI

    HALAMAN JUDUL ................................................................................................ i

    LEMBAR PENGESAHAN PROPOSAL KTI ...... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    PERNYATAAN KEASLIAN ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.

    KATA PENGANTAR ........................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.

    DAFTAR ISI .......................................................................................................... vi

    DAFTAR TABEL ................................................................................................... x

    DAFTAR GAMBAR ............................................................................................. xi

    DAFTAR LAMPIRAN ......................................................................................... xii

    DAFTAR SINGKATAN ..................................................................................... xiii

    ABSTRAK ........................................................................................................... xiv

    ABSTRACT .......................................................................................................... xv

    BAB I PENDAHULUAN ....................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Latar belakang ................................................................................................... 1

    1.2 Permasalahan penelitian .................................................................................... 3

    1.3 Tujuan penelitian ............................................................................................... 3

    1.3.1 Tujuan umum ................................................................................................. 3

    1.4 Manfaat penelitian ............................................................................................. 4

    1.5 Keaslian penelitian ............................................................................................ 4

    BAB II TINJAUAN PUSTAKA ............................................................................. 6

    2.1 Sindrom down ................................................................................................... 6

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    2.1.1 Manifestasi klinis sindrom down ................................................................... 7

    2.1.2 Kondisi spesifik sindrom down ...................................................................... 8

    2.2 Sistema auditorik manusia ................................................................................ 9

    2.2.1 Anatomi dan fisiologi pedengaran normal ..................................................... 9

    2.2.1.1 Mekanisme konduksi suara ....................................................................... 10

    2.2.1.1.1 Telinga luar ............................................................................................ 10

    2.2.1.1.2 Telinga tengah ........................................................................................ 12

    2.2.1.2 Mekanisme transduksi suara ..................................................................... 14

    2.2.1.2.1 Telinga dalam ......................................................................................... 14

    2.2.2 Patologi pendengaran manusia ..................................................................... 16

    2.2.2.1 Conductive hearing loss (CHL) ................................................................ 17

    2.2.2.2 Sensory-neural hearing loss (SNHL) ........................................................ 18

    2.2.2.3 Mixed hearing loss (MHL) ....................................................................... 18

    2.2.3 Pendengaran pada anak sindrom down ........................................................ 19

    2.2.4 Screening pendengaran ................................................................................ 20

    2.3 Kemampuan berbicara dan berbahasa anak normal ........................................ 21

    2.3.1 Kemampuan berbicara dan berbahasa anak sindrom down ........................ 22

    2.4 Hubungan ISPA dengan Gangguan Berbicara dan Berbahasa ...................... 26

    2.5 Hubungan Faktor Stimulasi dengan Perkembangan Berbicara dan Berbahasa

    ............................................................................................................................... 26

    2.6 Hubungan Faktor Retardasi Mental dengan Perkembangan Berbicara dan

    Berbahasa ............................................................................................................. 27

    BAB III KERANGKA TEORI, KERANGKA KONSEP, HIPOTESIS .............. 28

    3.1 Kerangka teori ................................................................................................. 28

    3.2 Kerangka konsep ............................................................................................. 29

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    3.3 Hipotesis .......................................................................................................... 29

    3.3.1 Hipotesis mayor ........................................................................................... 29

    BAB IV METODOLOGI PENELITIAN ............................................................. 30

    4.1 Ruang lingkup penelitian ................................................................................ 30

    4.2 Tempat dan waktu penelitian .......................................................................... 30

    4.3 Jenis dan rancangan penelitian ........................................................................ 30

    4.4 Populasi dan sampel penelitian ....................................................................... 30

    4.4.1 Populasi target .............................................................................................. 30

    4.4.2 Populasi terjangkau ...................................................................................... 30

    4.4.3 Sampel .......................................................................................................... 31

    4.4.3.1 Kriteria inklusi .......................................................................................... 31

    4.4.3.2 Kriteria eksklusi ........................................................................................ 31

    4.4.4 Cara sampling............................................................................................... 31

    4.4.5 Besar sampel ................................................................................................ 31

    4.5 Variabel penelitian .......................................................................................... 32

    4.5.1 Variabel bebas .............................................................................................. 32

    4.5.2 Variabel terikat ............................................................................................. 32

    4.5.3 Variabel perancu .......................................................................................... 32

    4.6 Definisi operasional ........................................................................................ 32

    4.7 Cara pengumpulan data ................................................................................... 33

    4.7.1 Bahan dan alat .............................................................................................. 33

    4.7.2 Jenis data ...................................................................................................... 33

    4.7.3 Cara kerja ..................................................................................................... 33

    4.8 Alur penelitian ................................................................................................. 34

    4.9 Analisa data ..................................................................................................... 35

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    4.10 Etika penelitian.............................................................................................. 35

    4.11 Jadwal penelitian ........................................................................................... 35

    BAB V HASIL PENELITIAN ............................................................................. 36

    5.1 Karakteristik Subjek Penelitian ....................................................................... 36

    5.1.1 Fungsi pendengaran subjek penelitian ......................................................... 37

    5.1.2 Tipe gangguan pendengaran subjek penelitian ............................................ 38

    5.2 Analisis interferensial ..................................................................................... 39

    5.2.1 Hubungan derajat gangguan pendengaran dengan derajat perkembangan

    bahasa (DDST) ...................................................................................................... 39

    5.2.2 Hubungan gangguan pendengaran dengan perkembangan bahasa (DDST) 40

    5.2.3 Hubungan Periode U