ch. 4 folk and popular culture key issues 12 where are folk and popular material culture...

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2 categories of Material Culture 2. Popular Culture Large, heterogeneous societies share habits despite different personal characteristics Widespread distribution, greater interaction Rapid global connections – modern communication and transportation (radio, tv, computers, internet, Facebook, twitter, instagram) Frequently changing trends and fads Globalization of popular culture threatens survival of folk cultures Leads to uniformity (sameness) of cultural landscapes Less consideration for environment; exploitation of natural resources for commercial profits

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Ch. 4 Folk and Popular Culture Key Issues 1&2 Where Are Folk and Popular Material Culture Distributed? Key Issue #1 Where Are Folk and Popular Leisure Activities Distributed? 2 categories of Material Culture: 1. Folk Culture small, homogeneous groups in isolated, rural areas Exist much in original forms; little or no change over time Limited interaction with outside cultures Diffuses mainly by relocation/migration; threatened by expansion diffusion of popular culture thru interaction and communication (tv and radio) Strong resistance to change celebrate local diversity with festivals Minimal impact on environment; stewards of scarce resources and fragile environments 2 categories of Material Culture 2. Popular Culture Large, heterogeneous societies share habits despite different personal characteristics Widespread distribution, greater interaction Rapid global connections modern communication and transportation (radio, tv, computers, internet, Facebook, twitter, instagram) Frequently changing trends and fads Globalization of popular culture threatens survival of folk cultures Leads to uniformity (sameness) of cultural landscapes Less consideration for environment; exploitation of natural resources for commercial profits Small, homogeneous groups Narrowly distributed; clustered Found in isolated, rural areas Little to no spatial interaction Provincial Little to no change over time Varies from place to place at given time Unique identities of culture groups Sensitive to protection of environment Often anonymous origins Multiple hearths / independent invention Response to physical environment Local diversity due to diverse geography Art, Food / Cuisine, Clothing, Shelter,Weapons Stage 1 & 2 DTM (LDCs) Relocation diffusion / migration Diffusion occurs slowly Music reflects events in daily life Music tells stories (ballads) Music conveys useful info Often transform into Popular Culture Soccer / rugby / football Lacrosse (bum hips) Ice hockey / Curling / skiing Baseball Golf Large, heterogeneous societies Widely distributed; dispersed Found in urban areas Constant, rapid interaction Cosmopolitan Rapid, constant change (fads & trends) Varies from time to time at a given place Threatens local diversity Disregard for local environments Products of specific artists Produced to make money (commercial) Broad appeal to all in all places Leads to uniformity of cultural landscape Stage 3 & 4 DTM (MDCs) Expansion / Hierarchical diffusion Diffusion occurs rapidly thru modern communications (tv, radio, internet) Music is mass produced for commercial uses Influenced by elements of folk culture, but for broader market appeal; forms of recreation and entertainment become commercialized businesses World Cup Soccer Olympic Games World Baseball Games The Open Championship FOLK CULTUREPOPULAR CULTURE back ORIGIN Often anonymous origins Multiple hearths / independent invention Found in isolated, rural areas Response to physical environment Local diversity due to diverse geography Art, Food / Cuisine, Clothing, Shelter, Weapons Little to no change over time Unique identities of culture groups Sensitive to protection of environment DIFFUSION Relocation diffusion / migration Diffusion occurs slowly Music reflects events in daily life Music tells stories (ballads) Music conveys useful info DISTRIBUTION Small, homogeneous groups Narrowly distributed; clustered Found in isolated, rural areas Little to no spatial interaction Provincial Stage 1 & 2 DTM (LDCs) Varies from place to place at given time ORIGIN Products of specific artists Produced to make money (commercial) Broad appeal to all in all places Threatens local diversity Disregard for local environments Leads to uniformity of cultural landscape Influenced by elements of folk culture, but for broader market appeal; forms of recreation and entertainment become commercialized businesses Folk culture often transforms into Popular Culture Soccer / rugby / football, Lacrosse (bum hips), Ice hockey / Curling / skiing, Baseball, Basketball DIFFUSION Expansion / Hierarchical diffusion Diffusion occurs rapidly thru modern communications (tv, radio, internet) Music is mass produced for commercial uses Constant, rapid interaction Rapid, constant change (fads & trends) DISTRIBUTION Widely distributed; dispersed Large, heterogeneous societies Found in urban areas Cosmopolitan Stage 3 & 4 DTM (MDCs) Varies from time to time at a given place FOLK CULTUREPOPULAR CULTURE Key Issue #1 Where Do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse? Culture Hearths centers of innovation and invention from which culture traits and elements moved to influence other regions. (Folk Culture) Cradles of civilization writing, metallurgy, long-distance trade, astronomy and math, social stratification and labor specialization, govt. systems, and urban culture Centers of plant and animal domestication Egypt, Crete, Mesopotamia, Indus Valley, N. China, SE Asia, sub-Saharan Africa all urban centers Stratified societies included artisans, warriors, merchants, scholars, priests, and administrators Writing first appeared in Mesopotamia and Egypt 5000 yrs. Ago Independent invention or diffusion? back 1.Environmental Determinism ALL social development is dictated by environmental conditions; geographic luck 2. Possibilism environment sets limits on human actions, but humans have the ability to adjust to environment; many possibilities of human responses to environmental conditions 3. Diffusionism cultural similarities occur by spread (diffusion) out from one common origin; Out of Africa theory ; cultural advancement travels along trade routes; Thor HeyerdahlThor Heyerdahl 4. Multilinear Evolution common characteristics of separated cultures develop under similar ecological circumstances; similar environments induce similar adaptive traits Different Theories on Origin of Culture Key Issue #2 Where Are Folk and Popular Material Cultures Distributed Isolation causes cultural diversity Cultural divergence occurred before modern transportation reduced friction of distance; especially in areas with rugged terrain or extreme climates Physical Environment influences clothing, food preferences, and housing styles One of the surest ways to identify a familys ethnic origin is to look in the kitchen Folk Clothing (Costume) Diffusion of Popular Clothing Rapid, hierarchical diffusion originated as a very practical piece of work clothing in western U.S. (folk) Wide distribution w/ no regard for physical landscape, reflect income and job characteristics Jeans symbol of globalization Folk Food (Cuisine) Preferences Folk Culture food taboos influenced by environment Perceived benefits jaguars, bulls, hearts, mandrake You are what you eat! What are you? Chinese proverb you treat what you eatyou treat what you eat Bizarre Foods in IndonesiaIndonesia Sexual and reproductive benefits Negative forces in nature Otters in Japan Potatoes in Europe Chicken or Goat in Chad Pre-marital meals in Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea) Negative environmental impact Hebrews avoid animals that dont chew cud or have cloven feet, and fish without scales or fins; Kosher Laws Muslims reject pork pigs not suitable in arid regions, compete with humans for food and water Hindus avoidance of eating cows; needed as plow animals Americans avoid insects and pets Haggis haggis Diffusion of Popular Food Popular Food Customs Fast Food / Corporate Food Industry / Chains Relocation diffusion of folk cultures Tacos, pizza, sushi, Swedish meatballs Global distribution network any food, any time Alcohol and Fresh Produce High Income & National Advertising Local Preferences affected by availability (seasonal) Wine Production Soil, climate, seasons, local culture Local Preferences affected by availability What basic principle of diffusion is illustrated by the 2 maps in Figure 4-12 of the diffusion of Canadian whiskey and tequila? Canadian whiskey is most popular near Canada distance decay AND contagious diffusion Tequila is most popular near Mexico distance decay AND relocation diffusion Folk Housing Early American Houses Popular Housing (Shelter) Diffusion of Popular Housing Popular Housing Styles Vary more in time than in place Usually mass-produced Most styles have diffused thru-out U.S. Display few regional differences Modern House Styles ( ) Minimal traditional (40s & 50s) Ranch (50s & 60s) Split-level (60s & 70s) Contemporary ( 50s to 70s) Neo-Eclectic Houses (most popular since 1960) Mansard (60s & 70s) Neo-Tudor (70s & 80s) Neo- French (70s & 80s) Neo-Colonial (1950s and on)

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