folk and popular culture
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DESCRIPTIONFolk and popular culture. Chapter 4. Key Issue #1. Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse. Culture. The combination of three things: Values **Material artifacts Survival activities such as food, clothing, shelter Leisure activities such as the arts and recreation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Chapter 4FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE
Where do Folk and Popular Cultures Originate and Diffuse KEY ISSUE #1
CultureThe combination of three things:Values **Material artifacts Survival activities such as food, clothing, shelterLeisure activities such as the arts and recreationPolitical institutions
Material CultureTwo basic categories: folk and popular cultureFolk cultureTraditionally practiced by small, isolated, homogeneous groups in rural areasPopular cultureCharacterized by large, heterogeneous groups of people who share common habits despite differences in other personal characteristicsGeographers are interested in two aspects of culture:Where cultures are located in spaceHow cultures interact with the environment
Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse?Origin of folk and popular culturesFolk culture = hearth area; originators are usually unknownPopular culture = hearth area comes from more developed countries (MDCs)People in MDCs have disposable income and leisure time that allow for these innovations
Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse?Origin of folk and popular musicFolk music characteristicsTells a story or recounts important life events or activitiesIs personal in naturePopular music characteristicsWritten by individuals for the purpose of selling to a large audienceHighly technical
Origin of Country MusicFig. 4-1: U.S. country music has four main hearths, or regions of origin: southern Appalachia, central Tennessee and Kentucky, the Ozark-Ouachita uplands, and north-central Texas.
Tin Pan Alley and Popular MusicFig. 4-2: Writers and publishers of popular music were clustered in Tin Pan Alley in New York City in the early twentieth century. The area later moved north from 28th Street to Times Square.
Popular Music MapFigure 4-2
Hip-Hop MapFigure 4-3
Where Do Cultures Originate and Diffuse?Diffusion of folk and popular cultureFolk culture diffuses slowly, primarily through migration, and at a small scaleExample: Diffusion of Amish culturePopular culture diffuses rapidly, via hierarchical diffusion, and over a large scaleExample: Sports
Distribution of AmishFigure 4-4
Amish Settlements in the U.S.Fig. 4-4: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U.S.
Hoop Dancers are featured at some Pow Wows. The hoop has no beginning or end; it represents the continuity of the spirits of all living things.
Why is Folk Culture Clustered?KEY ISSUE #2
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?Isolation promotes cultural diversityExamples:Himalayan artBeliefs and folk house formsSacred spacesU.S. folk housing
Himalayan Folk Cultural RegionsFig. 4-5: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?Influence of the physical environmentFolk culture = close connection to the environmentMost folk cultures are rural and agriculturalClothing is often tied to environmental conditionsExample: Wooden clogs in the NetherlandsFolk cultures can ignore environmental conditions
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?Influence of the physical environmentFood preferences and the environmentFood preferences are adapted to the environmentExample: In Asia, rice is grown in milder, wetter environments whereas wheat is grown in colder, drier environmentsFood taboos may be especially strongPeople avoid certain foods because of negative associations with that foodTerroir = the sum effects of the local environment on a particular food item
Istanbul Vegetable GardenFigure 4-6
Hog Production and Food CulturesFig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?Influence of the physical environmentFolk housing and the environmentHousing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function, and the physical environmentTwo most common building materials = wood and brickMinor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles
Home Locations in Southeast AsiaFig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).
House Types in Four Western Chinese CommunitiesFigure 4-9
Why Is Folk Culture Clustered?Influence of the physical environmentU.S. Folk House FormsFred Kniffen identified 3 major hearths of folk house forms in the U.S. that have influenced homes throughout the U.S.New EnglandMiddle AtlanticLower Chesapeake
Hearths of House Types
Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.
Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?KEY ISSUE #3
Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?Diffusion of popular housing, clothing, and foodPopular culture varies more in time than placeFood customs: consumption of large quantities of snack foods and alcoholClothing styles: reflect occupation rather than environmentHousing: reflects fashion trends since the 1940s in the United States
Consumption of Canadian Whiskey and Tequila Figure 4-14
Wine Production per YearFig. 4-13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.
U.S. House Types (19451990)Figure 4-16
Why Is Popular Culture Widely Distributed?Electronic diffusion of popular cultureWatching televisionThe most popular leisure activity in MDCsDiffusion from the United States to the rest of the world = 50 yearsThe InternetDiffusion from the United States to the rest of the world = 10 years
Diffusion of TVFigure 4-18
Diffusion of FacebookFigure 4-21
Distribution of Internet HostsFig. 4-15: The U.S. had two-thirds of the worlds internet hosts in 2002. Diffusion of internet service is likely to follow the pattern of TV diffusion, but the rate of this diffusion may differ.
Why Does Globalization of Popular Culture Cause Problems?KEY ISSUE #4
Why Does Popular Culture Cause Problems?Threats to folk cultureLoss of traditional valuesMedia imperialismSatellites Limit to government control of information
Why Does Popular Culture Cause Problems?Environmental impact of popular cultureModifying natureGolf coursesUniform landscapesNegative impactsIncreased demand for natural resourcesPollution
Golf Courses in Metropolitan AreasFig. 4-16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average.