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Chapter 4 Folk and Popular Culture. Key Issue 2 Why is Folk Culture Clustered?. Isolation promotes cultural diversity Influence of the physical environment. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 4 Folk and Popular CultureKey Issue 2 Why is Folk Culture Clustered?Folk culture typically has unknown or multiple origins among groups living in relative isolation. Folk culture diffuses slowly to other locations through the process of migration. A combination of physical and cultural factors influences the distinctive distributions of folk culture. Isolation promotes cultural diversityInfluence of the physical environmentFolk customs develop of centuries of isolation

Himalayan MountainsNeighboring isolated cultural groupsDistinctive culture seen in their artwork

Isolation Promotes Cultural DiversityTibetan BuddhistsDivine figuresDepicted bizarre/horrifyingReflecting inhospitable envtHindusEveryday lifeDeity in domestic scenesRegions violent/extreme climateMuslimsBeautiful plants & flowersDo NOT show harsh climatic conditionsMyanmar (Burma) & Southeast AsiaSymbols & designs from religionNOT local environmentVarying Art in HimalayasArt shows how religion and environment influence these different cultural groupsMany groups of similar environments adopt different social customsMany groups in different environments adopt similar social customs

Contradicts Environmental Determinism theory

People DO respond to environment, but it isnt the only factor in social customsInfluence of the Physical EnvironmentFood, clothing, shelterDetermined by climate, soil, vegetation

Arctic ClimatesFur-lined boots, snowshoesWarm & Humid ClimatesFootwear not neededNetherlandsWooden shoes: farmers needed waterproof shoes for wet fields because Netherlands is below sea-levelInfluence of the Physical Environment

Folk societiesVery responsive to environmentLow level of technologyLikely to be farmersGrow their own foodUse hand tools, animal power

Some societies ignore the norms!

Influence of the Physical EnvironmentFood habits derive from environmentInhabitants must consider soil, climate, terrain, vegetation to produce foodRice: milder, moist climatesWheat: colder, drier regions

Distinctive Food PreferencesAccess to fuel can determine food supplyLimited Fuel: Asia, ItalyAbundant Fuel: Northern EuropeSoy beans: toxic in raw formSprouts, soy sauce, bean curd: dont require extensive cookingItaly: quick frying foods Northern Europe: slow stews, roasts

Distinctive Food Preferences

Terroir: the contribution of a locations distinctive physical features to the way food tastes (terre: land)Ex: wine can taste different based on where grapes are grownDistinctive Food PreferencesIstanbul, TurkeyBostans: small gardens (1000) that supply the city with produceFarmers maximize yields through clever manipulation of space, season & resourcesDifferent crops grown throughout yearCrops vary each yearReduces risk of damage from poor weather

Distinctive Food PreferencesTransylvania, Romania

Transylvania, Romania 1900sHome to many different migrating cultural groups: Hungarians, Romanians, Jews, Armenians, etcAll eat lots of soups, poor people foodHowever, each cultural group has a different type based on their background

Food habits often migrate to new places

Food Diversity in TransylvaniaCertain foods eaten because they enhance qualities desirable by societyStrength, fierceness, lovemaking ability

Food Attractions and TaboosGroupEat/dont eatFoodReasonAbipone Indians of ParaguayeatJaguars & bullsMake them strong, brave, swiftContinue the Chart while reading p.122-124Food Attractions and TaboosGroupEat/dont eatFoodReasonAbipone Indians of ParaguayeatJaguars & bullsMake them strong, brave, swiftEating Rathttp://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/places/countries-places/togo/togo_eatingrat/Goat Fetushttp://video.nationalgeographic.com/video/places/culture-places/food/india_goatfetus/

Product of cultural tradition & natural conditionsGood reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, functional needs & impact of environmentFolk Housing

Type of materials influenced by resources available in environment

Two most common building materials:Wood (preferred when available)BrickOther materials: Stone, grass, sod & skinsDistinctive Building Materials

MDCsLumber cut into needed shapesFrame, floors, ceiling, roof

Shingles, stucco, vinyl, aluminum used for exterior, insulation, decorationDistinctive Building MaterialsLimited access to forests use alt. materialsHot, dry climates (US Southwest, Mexico, Northern China, Middle East)Bricks: bake mud in sun

Europe & South AmericastoneDistinctive Building MaterialsIf desired material isnt available:Import materials

United StatesSave money by using alternatives to lumberdrywallDistincitive Building Materials

Form of houseCustomary beliefs or environmental factorsOrientation of house can varyReligious valuesFiji: east wall of house is sacredChina: northwest wall is sacredMiddle East, India and Africa: similar religious values with sacred walls

Distinctive House Form & OrientationReligious considerations for each part of houseWest: main doorNortheast: most sacredNorth: honoring ancestors, where guests are seatedEast: bed placement, head facing northMadagascar

House Types in 4 communities of western China24Figure: 04-08

Title: House types in four communities of western China.

Caption: (upper left) Kashgar houses have second-floor open-air patios, where the residents can catch evening breezes. Poplar and fruit trees can be planted around the houses, because the village has a river that is constantly flowing rather than seasonal, as is the case in much of China's dry lands. These deciduous trees provide shade in the summer and openings for sunlight in the winter. (lower left) Turpan houses have small, open courtyards for social gatherings. Turpan is situated in a deep valley with relatively little open land, because much of the space is allocated to drying raisins. Second-story patios, which would use even less land, are avoided, because the village is subject to strong winds. (lower right) Yinchuan houses are built around large, open-air courtyards, which contain tall trees to provide shade. Most residents are Muslims, who regard courtyards as private spaces to be screened from outsiders. The adobe bricks are square or cubic rather than rectangular, as is the case in the other villages, though R. W. McColl found no reason for this distinctive custom. (upper right) Dunhuang houses are characterized by walled central courtyards, covered by an open-lattice grape arbor. The cover allows for the free movement of air but provides shade from the especially intense direct summer heat and light. Rather than the flat roofs characteristic of dry lands, houses in Dunhuang have sloped roofs, typical of wetter climates, so that rainfall can run off. The practice is apparently influenced by Dunhuang's relative proximity to the population centers of eastern China, where sloped roofs predominate.LaosHead is considered high and noble Feet considered low and vulgarPeople sleep head to head or feet to feetThailandIgnore position of neighbors head/feet in bedAll sleep with head faced East, most favorable directionStaircases cannot face West: the direction of death and evil spirits

Southeast AsiaConstruction of house can relate to environmentPitched roof snowy, wet climatesWindow direction/size extreme climates

Folk housing can vary in similar climates

North & West China-drylandsSimilar building materials: adobe, timberSimilar objective: protection from extreme tempsDifferent, Individual designs based on social customsHousing and Environment

House Types in 4 communities of western China27Figure: 04-08

Title: House types in four communities of western China.

Caption: (upper left) Kashgar houses have second-floor open-air patios, where the residents can catch evening breezes. Poplar and fruit trees can be planted around the houses, because the village has a river that is constantly flowing rather than seasonal, as is the case in much of China's dry lands. These deciduous trees provide shade in the summer and openings for sunlight in the winter. (lower left) Turpan houses have small, open courtyards for social gatherings. Turpan is situated in a deep valley with relatively little open land, because much of the space is allocated to drying raisins. Second-story patios, which would use even less land, are avoided, because the village is subject to strong winds. (lower right) Yinchuan houses are built around large, open-air courtyards, which contain tall trees to provide shade. Most residents are Muslims, who regard courtyards as private spaces to be screened from outsiders. The adobe bricks are square or cubic rather than rectangular, as is the case in the other villages, though R. W. McColl found no reason for this distinctive custom. (upper right) Dunhuang houses are characterized by walled central courtyards, covered by an open-lattice grape arbor. The cover allows for the free movement of air but provides shade from the especially intense direct summer heat and light. Rather than the flat roofs characteristic of dry lands, houses in Dunhuang have sloped roofs, typical of wetter climates, so that rainfall can run off. The practice is apparently influenced by Dunhuang's relative proximity to the population centers of eastern China, where sloped roofs predominate.Older houses display folk culture traditionPioneers, 1700s & 1800sBrought their east coast housing styles westward as they migrated

Three Major HearthsNew England, Mid Atlantic and Lower ChesapeakeUS Folk House Forms

29Figure: 04-09

Title: Source areas of U.S. house types.

Caption: According to Fred Kniffen, house types in the United States originated in three main source areas and diffused westward a

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