06 chuong 6 moi truong ngam

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1. CCHHNNGG 0066MMOOII TTRRNNGGNNGGAAMM 2. I. NC DI T (GROUND WATER)II. NHIT (TEMPERATURE)III. P SUT 3. I. NC DI TI.1 CC THUYT V NGUN GC VS HNH THNH NC DI T 1. Thuyt ngm ra bi Palixi v E. Marit (1580-1650) thuyt ny gii thch s hnh thnh nc di tl do ma ngm vo t . Sau c Lmnoxpb sung thm bng thuyt a ha. 2. Thuyt ngng t ra bi cat 1962, Hn 1663,Fnge 1887 theo thuyt ny hi nc xm nhp vo t cng vi khng kh sau c ngng t li. 4. 3. Thuyt nc s sinh ca nh a cht o Zus vou th k XX: Ngun gc nc di t l do hi ncv cc sn phm dng hi tch ra t macma nng chy trong lng su ca tri t; khi xm nhp vo cc ibn trong v tri t chng b ngng t li. 4. Thuyt v ngun gc tn d ca nc di ttheo thuyt ny nc di t cc i su l nctn d ca cc khu vc nc c b chn vi cng vit trm lng. 5. I.2. PHN LOI NC DI TC nhiu cch phn lai nc di t ni bt l :- Cch phn lai ca Xavarenxky da trn cc iu kinphn b, p lc, c im vn ng, ngun gc, cutrc a cht, tnh phn i kh hu, nhit , i a hav thnh phn ha hc. Nc di t c chia thnh:nc th nhng, nc ly, nc thng tng, ncngm, nc atzi, nc cact v nc khe nt.- Cch phn loi Ovtsinnicov v Klimentov li da trn cs tng tr, c im p lc, ng thi, ngun gc vkh nng s dng nc trong nn kinh t quc dn. yl cch phn loi tin dng v tng i ph bin hinnay. Nc di t c chia thnh: nc thngtng, nc ngm v nc atzi 6. 1. Nc thng tng: Tn ti phn trn cng ca v tri t c ngha ln i vi cc hat ng kinh t ca con ngi,c phn thnh ba i ring bit:a. i thng kh: lin quan vi kh quyn. Nc mt v ncma ngm qua i ny. Mt phn l hng ca i lun luncha khng kh.b. i mao dn: phn b trn tng nc ngm. Ti i nynhng l hng nh dng si cha y nc, cn cc lhng ln hn khng cha nc.c. i bo ha: chnh l lp nc ngm, trong tt c cc lhng u cha y nc. Nm di i ny l t cchnc hoc thm yu.* c im: NTT phn b nhng su khng ln lm (0,5m 10m), b dy mng, din phn b hn ch mc nc daong mnh theo cc iu kin thi tit* Thnh phn ha hc: nc thng tng b khong ha yunhiu khi b nhim bn cc hp cht hu c 7. i thng khimao dni bo ha (dng ngm)MaM hnh phn b nc thng tng 8. 2. Nc ngm (nc khng p lc): l nc ca tng chanc lin tc nm pha trn tng cch nc u tin tnh tb mt tri t. H tng t b ri hoc nc n cha ync trng lc gi l tng cha nc hoc lp cha nc.t khng thm nc nm di tng cha nc l lpcc nc hoc y cch nc.* c im: Quan h thy lc mt thit vi cc bn cha ncmt. Min cung cp v min tng tr ca n trng nhau vto ra cc mch nc vng thot.* ng thi ca nc c trng bi s dao ng theo ma, iukin kh hu, lu lng, nhit v thnh phn ha hc cachng.* Thnh phn ha hc nc ngm chu nh hng rt mnh caiu kin kh hu, lai t i thng kh v cc bnnc mt. 9. b a bH61234Ma578 8S mt ct, cu to tng nc khng p.1 Tng cha nc khng p, 2 i thng kh, 3 Mc nc, 4 Chiudng thm5 y cch nc,6 Nc p cc b, 7 Nc thng tng, 8 Sng hocmch nc,a Min cung cp, b Min thot 10. 2. Nc actzi (nc p lc): nm gia hai y cch nc (2)v (3), c ct p lc cao hn y cch nc trn v vnng thm do chnh p lc. Do b lp cch nc hoclp t c tnh thm nc km ph lin tc bn trn, tora p lc v khng c mt thang t do (tr min cung cpv vng that).* c im: Mc nc p lc pht hin c khi khoan thngy cch nc trn gi l mc nc xut hin, mc ncny su hn mc nc xc nh trong ging khoan sau 24gi gi l mc nc n nh. Min cung cp thng rt xav tng cha nc su nn nc p lc c sch cao,lu lng tng i n nh, ng thi ca n t thay itheo ma.* ng thi ca nc c trng bi s dao ng theo ma, iukin kh hu, lu lng, nhit v thnh phn ha hc cachng.* Thnh phn ha hc nc actzi rt a dng nhng ni tipxc vi nc ngm do nc ma v nc cc bn ncthm xung, khang ha thng thp v khng n nh;an su, khang ha thng cao, thnh phn hahc n nh. 11. a1 a b b1LK1LK2LK3ng mc p lcS tng cha nc c p dng np vng 12. Tn kiuchnhc trngp lcCc lainc dit chnhMincung cpv mintng trc imng thica ncNgungcPhm vi sdngNcthngtngKhng p Nc ly,nc thnhng,nc ngbngTrngnhauKhngthngxuynNcngm lc bnNngnghip, chocc c snhNckhng pThngkhng pTrm tchaluvi, ccthung lngsng, lp phmin ni,tng ct venbinTrngnhauMc ncdao ngtheo ma,bc hi,ngm, plc cc bNcngm lc bn,ngngtDng cpnc tihoc gingkhiActzi C p M du,nckhang,nc cngnghip, ncnngKhngtrngnhauThay ido p lcNgm xa vnguynsinhCp ncchnh (CN),khai thcnguyn thim,khongcha bnh. 13. 11..11-- GGRROOUUNNDD WWAATTEERR1.1 .1 Origin of ground water (GW)04 types of GW1. Meteoric water.2. Connate water.3. Juvenile water.4. Mixed water. 14. 0044 TTyyppeess ooff GGWWMeteoric water(Infiltration of rainwater.)(Distribution @ shallow depth.)(Total mineralization: Low)Tens to be OxidizingpH: (Often acidic due to dissolved humic,carbonic and nitrous acids.)Connate waterAncient sea water which was trap in thesediment during burial.PH, va EH. Differs from seawater both inconcentration of dissolved salt and pH, andEh . 15. 0044 TTyyppeess ooff GGWW ((ccoonntt..))Juvenile water(Primary of magmatic origin.)Brought to near surface environmentdissolved in magma.Usually mixed with either connate or meteoricwater.Mixed waterResults from the commingling of meteoric,juvenile and connate waters.Usually between the near surface meteoricwater, juvenile and the deeper, more salineconnate water. 16. II..33.. TTNNHH CCHHTT HHAA HHCC CCAA NNCC DDII TTNc t nhin khng bao gi tinh khit, chng lun cha mt lngcc cht kh v cht rn ha tan. Thnh phn dung dch nc l mthm ca nhiu yu t: Thnh phn ban u ca nc, p sut ringca pha kh, nhit , lai khong vt m nc tip xc, pH vth oxy ha Eh ca dung dch.a. pH: c trng cho nng ion H+ trong nc qua th hin mc acid hoc kim ca nc.pH = - lg(H+)- pH = 7 : nc trung tnh- pH < 7 : nc acid- pH > 7 : nc c tnh kimb. Th oxy ha Eh:(vol) c trng cho cc phn ng oxy ha kh xyra trong mi trng nc. Th c du dng nu phn ng loxyha; m khi kh.Nu bit Eh v pH ca dung dch nc, c th xc nh c s nnh ca cc khang vt tip xc vi nc. V d nc t nhin ticc mi trng gn b mt thng c pH gia 4 v 9 th oxy hagia -0,5 v 1. 17. Fig 01 18. Deep connate water show a wide range of Ehand pH depending on their history and how muchtheyve mixed with meteoric water.Oilfield brines tends to be more alkaline andmore strongly reducing than seawater.The Eh and pH of pore fluids control theprecipitation and dissolution of cements such asthe carbonates and ion oxides, as well as thealterations of clays minerals in subsurface rocks Extremely important to understand therelationships of Eh and pH to diagenesis and theevolution of porosity. 19. CChheemmiissttrryy ooff ggrroouunndd wwaatteerr((ccoonntt..)) Second: SalinityIn general salinity of GW increases with depth(normal hydrochemical profile)-Fig.02. Therate of increases varies from basin to basin, evenfrom place to place within a particular basin.Typical seawater has a salinity of about35ppthousand (3.5%).The salinity of GW range from near zero (innewly introduced meteoric to > 600ppthousand(60%) in connate water within evaporateformation. 20. Fig 02 21. Reversal hydrochemical profile have beenobserved due to two possible causes:1. Meteoric can be trapped beneath anunconformity and preserved as Paleoaquiferwith relative low salinity as compared connatewater above the unconformity.2. Overpressure: In shale sequences,formation water is trapped.In shale, the increases in salinity with depth isless noticeable than in sandstones: Water movesupwards in compacting sediments, shale acts atsemipermeable membranes preventing saltescaping from the sands. 22. Four major sub. environment:1. Zone 1 (surface 1km) uniform Zone ofcirculating meteoric water. Salinity fairly uniform;2. Zone 2 (1 3km) gradually increases with depthSaline formation water is ionized;3. Zone 3 (3km) Chemically reducingenvironment, in which hydrocarbons form.Salinity uniform with increasing depth; may evendecline if overpressured;4. Zone 4 incipient metamorphism withrecrystallization of clays to micas. 23. Cc mu nc c phn tch xc nh: Tng khong ha, mt s nguyn t, ion (Cl-, SO42-,HCO3-, Na+ & K+, Mg2+, Ca2+). Quan h gia cc ion. Xc lp mt s quan h t l, phn loi theo Sulin. nh gi s thay i ca tng khong ho theo chiu su. Ngoi ra mt s mu nc cn c tin hnh phn tch hm lngvi nguyn t nh I, Br, Sr,. Tnh ton kh nng sa lng ca canxit, thch cao v sinh kh CO2t do . nh gi ngun gc, qu trnh bin i ca nc cc m. Tng khong ha l tng lng cc nguyn t ha hc, cc hpcht ca chng v cc kh cha trong nc. N c nh gi theolng cn kh hoc cn cht, sau khi cho nc bc hi nhit 1050C 1100C. 24. + Phan loai Xulin: Phan loai cua Xulin da tren c sphan chia cac loai nc theo cac t so nhat nhcua cac ion, ac trng cho cac ieu kien thanhtao khac nhau cua nc di at noi chung vaac biet vi nc di at trong cac vung modau kh; v vay phan loai nay c s dung rongrai trong a chat thuy van cac mo dau kh. Tren c s xem xet cac moi quan he (Trong orNa+, rCl- c tnh bang %l/l):Vi ng lng = Khi lng ion tm c (mg/l) chia chokhi lng ng lng (KLL).KLL = Khi lng nguyn t ca ion chia cho ha tr ca n.%l/l l t l phn trm ca cc anion v cation bng quy ctng cc anion hoc cation l 50%+-rNarCl+ - -rSOrNa rCl-24- - +rMgrCl rNa+2 25. Xulin chia nc D thanh 4 loai: 1. Loai nc sunphat natri co nguon goc ra lua ai luc,c ac trng bang:+rNa >1;+ - -rSOrNa rCl < 1 va-- - +rMgrCl rNa 1;-rCl+ - -rSOrNa rCl > 1 va-24- - +rMgrCl rNa 1 ; 1 va 35 > 3.5Klimentov, 1977 Table 01 29. Oder Catelogy Total dissolvedSolids(mg/l)1 Fresh < 1,0002 Brakish water 1,000 10,0003 Saline 10,000 100,0004 Brine > 100,000Freeze and Cherry, 1979Table 02 30. I.4. Nc cc m du v khNc lun i cng vi git du, bt kh t lc sinh thnh,di c cho n tch ly vo by cha. V vy, nc ngvai tr quan trng trong vic hnh thnh gi gn hay phhy m. Do , cn hiu c im phn b, tnh chtcng nh cc c tnh ca nc ngm cc m dukh.Kiu nc tng quan vi du, kh Trong cc m du kh thng tn ti nc ra, ncy. Ngoi ra, cn c cc va nc cha kh bo hanm trn hoc di cc va du, kh. Nc ra l nc chim phn ra ranh gii cc va dudng va (H.7.14a), nc y l nc chim phn dica va du dng khi (H.7.14b). 31. Ranhgiidau-ncDauNcayDauNcraRanhgiidau-nca) b)Hnh M hnh phn b cc va nc 32. Phn loi nc theo thnh phn ha hcXulin V. A. phn cc loi nc sau: Nc sulphatnatri l loi nc thm thu t trn mtthng c khong thp, vng mt trong cc m dukh. Tuy nhin cng c khi l nc ngm cc m anhidrit, hoc cc m l ln trn mt t, m h do vikhun kh sulphat hot ng. Nc bicacbonatnatri c ngun gc l do thm thuhay nc kiu cc b trm tch c c ngun gc bin