Tudor England. The Tudors Henry VII (Henry Tudor) won the War of the Roses Henry VIII, son of Henry VII –Sought male heir to throne –Broke Church of England.

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Tudor England Slide 2 The Tudors Henry VII (Henry Tudor) won the War of the Roses Henry VIII, son of Henry VII Sought male heir to throne Broke Church of England from Rome in 1534 Seized property of the monasteries Edward VI changed doctrine of church to truly protestant Mary I, daughter of Henry VIII by Spanish Catherine of Aragon (preceded by Lady Jane Gray, somewhat queen for 9 days!) Elizabeth I, daughter of Henry VIII by Anne Boleyn Henry VIII and his wives Slide 3 Mary I (r. 1553-1558) Devoutly Catholic daughter of Catherine of Aragon Tried to re-Catholicize England by repealing changes wrought by Edward VI 300 Protestants were burned as heretics: Bloody Mary 1554: Married Philip II of Spain (only nominally king of England) Policies created strong anti- Catholic sentiment in England Slide 4 Elizabeth I: Political Politique First successful female monarch in Europe: highly educated, fluent in English, French, Italian, Latin, Greek Her religion unclear, but nominally Church of England Unmarried virgin queen, loved Robert Dudley; believed national duty outweighed personal desires Used possibility of marriage diplomatically Moderation created English Renaissance, age of Shakespeare, Johnson, Marlowe Insisted on beautiful images of her self to portray power; loved by common people Selected able ministers to guide her (William Cecil), but maintained her own power Coronation Portrait Slide 5 Painting that is rumored to show Elizabeth and Dudley Slide 6 Elizabeth: Solidified English Church State church, with theology determined by monarch through Parliament All subjects obliged to belong to it Retained physical possessions and organization of the medieval church Protestant in practice: English-language worship, married clergy Thirty-nine Articles defined the churchs doctrines rather vaguely The ermine portrait Slide 7 Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots MQS, daughter of Marie de Guise and Scotlands James V French-raised wife of Francis II of France during French Religious Wars MQS became focus of intrigue between England, France, Spain, and rebellious Low Countries Devoutly Catholic, with clear right to Scottish throne; next-in-line to English throne after Elizabeth Spain wanted to use Netherlands as base to attack England, seat Mary on throne After several plots against Elizabeth, Mary was placed under house arrest in London Executed 1587: death in part caused Philip II to launch Armada Treaty of Berwick: Elizabeth allied with Scotland and unofficially named James VI as heir Slide 8 Elizabeth and the Spanish Armada English ships (Sir Francis Drake) plundered Spanish ships returning from America England supported anti-Spanish forces in Netherlands Mary Queen of Scots executed on eve of Spanish attack Drake burnt Spanish ships in Spanish port of Cadiz Armada sailed, first en route to Netherlands, before planned invasion of England 125 ships. 30,000 men Smaller, more agile English ships defeated lumbering Spanish galleons one at a time Protestant Wind drove Armada northward into terrifying Scottish seas, shipwrecks The Armada Portrait commemorates the English victory (see ships in background) Slide 9 Political Consolidation Long reign provided stability after chaotic short reigns of Edward and Mary Unification of church behind moderate views led to peaceful stability Defeat of the Catholic northern earls safeguarded reign Financial support of Dutch rebels weakened Spain

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