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  • EDEN VALLEY: VALLEY OF WATERStuart Walker

  • Theory, Proposition & PlaceContent:

    Location

    Introduction to Strategy

    Strategy in Location

    Strategy in Detail

    Part of Strategy in Greater Detail: Absorption

    Part of Strategy in Greater Detail: Laminar

    Absorption Strage Explained

    Location of Absorption

    Introduction to Built Elements

    Built Element 1

    Built Element 2

    Built Element 3

    Built Element 4

    Habitat Study

    Landscape Management

    Data & Issues

    Personal Proposition on Group Work

    Maquette Representation of Proposition

    Development of Strategy

    Design Development 1

    Design Development 2

  • Location

    The centre of the Eden Valley is 100 miles north of central Manchester. The valley borders two national parks (Lake District and Yorkshire Dales) and one area of outstanding national beauty (The Pennines). Contained within the valley are two areas of significant population, Carlisle (70,000 people) and Penrith (15,000 people). The 21,000km2 valley has 12 tributaries to its main river, the river Eden, which flows from Kirkby Stephen north to Carlisle and into the Irish Sea.

    River Eden Catchment Area

  • NRIVER EDEN

  • A

    AA

    Generic Axonometric

    MILLSTO

    NE GRIT

    FLOW

    LAMINAR

    FLOW

    ABSORPTIO

    N

    LAMINAR & FILTRATIO

    N

    CARBONIFERO

    US LIMESTO

    NE

    CARBONIFERO

    US LIMESTO

    NE

    ORDO

    VICIAN

    LAKE DISTRICTPENNINES

    BEE SANDSTONE

    MUDSTO

    NE

    PENRTIH SANDSTONE

    R. EDEN

    A

    AA

    +600m

    +600m

    0m

    300m

    300m 100m100m

    The Eden valley has unique geology that formed from its ancient past, for instance, the Penrith sandstone can only be found in this area and has been used in many of the buildings in the valley.A glacier some 18,000 years ago shaped the topography of the valley, creating steep valley sides and relatively flat bottom. Its this topography combine with the geology of the area, that creates its character but also the valleys issues.

  • Stone Properties

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Formed by compressing sand

    Water filtersthrough slowly

    Natural filter Erodes easily

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Used mainly in building and carving

    Formed by a sea, layering sediment with high alkaline

    makeup

    Acidic water dissolves the stone and creates caves, tunnels and

    reservoirs

    Uses include cement ingredient, glassproduction and building material

    CARBONIFEROUSLIMESTONE

    MILLSTONE GRITFormed by a low fresh water, creating layers

    of sediment

    Influenceslandform

    Water can be retained and transferred; Aquifer

    Used for buidling, mill grindstone and rock climbing

    Formed by a shallowsea, creating layers

    of sediment

    Contains particlesof oil

    Repels water;Aqutard

    Water sits ontop of it creatinglakes and rivers

    Used to create clay bricks

    MUDSTONE

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Formed by compressing sand

    Water filtersthrough slowly

    Natural filter Erodes easily

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Used mainly in building and carving

    Formed by a sea, layering sediment with high alkaline

    makeup

    Acidic water dissolves the stone and creates caves, tunnels and

    reservoirs

    Uses include cement ingredient, glassproduction and building material

    CARBONIFEROUSLIMESTONE

    MILLSTONE GRITFormed by a low fresh water, creating layers

    of sediment

    Influenceslandform

    Water can be retained and transferred; Aquifer

    Used for buidling, mill grindstone and rock climbing

    Formed by a shallowsea, creating layers

    of sediment

    Contains particlesof oil

    Repels water;Aqutard

    Water sits ontop of it creatinglakes and rivers

    Used to create clay bricks

    MUDSTONE

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Formed by compressing sand

    Water filtersthrough slowly

    Natural filter Erodes easily

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Used mainly in building and carving

    Formed by a sea, layering sediment with high alkaline

    makeup

    Acidic water dissolves the stone and creates caves, tunnels and

    reservoirs

    Uses include cement ingredient, glassproduction and building material

    CARBONIFEROUSLIMESTONE

    MILLSTONE GRITFormed by a low fresh water, creating layers

    of sediment

    Influenceslandform

    Water can be retained and transferred; Aquifer

    Used for buidling, mill grindstone and rock climbing

    Formed by a shallowsea, creating layers

    of sediment

    Contains particlesof oil

    Repels water;Aqutard

    Water sits ontop of it creatinglakes and rivers

    Used to create clay bricks

    MUDSTONE

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Formed by compressing sand

    Water filtersthrough slowly

    Natural filter Erodes easily

    BEE & PENRITHSANDSTONE

    Used mainly in building and carving

    Formed by a sea, layering sediment with high alkaline

    makeup

    Acidic water dissolves the stone and creates caves, tunnels and

    reservoirs

    Uses include cement ingredient, glassproduction and building material

    CARBONIFEROUSLIMESTONE

    MILLSTONE GRITFormed by a low fresh water, creating layers

    of sediment

    Influenceslandform

    Water can be retained and transferred; Aquifer

    Used for buidling, mill grindstone and rock climbing

    Formed by a shallowsea, creating layers

    of sediment

    Contains particlesof oil

    Repels water;Aqutard

    Water sits ontop of it creatinglakes and rivers

    Used to create clay bricks

    MUDSTONE

    ABSORPTION

    FLOW

    FILTRATION

    Mercia Mudstone

    Bee & Penrith Sandstone

    Carboniferous Limestone

    Millstone Grit

    Ordovician

    LAMINEAR

    ABSORPTION

    FLOW

    FILTRATION

    Mercia Mudstone

    Bee & Penrith Sandstone

    Carboniferous Limestone

    Millstone Grit

    Ordovician

    LAMINEAR

  • Appro

    x heig

    ht of b

    ank above sea level 90m

    3.79m

    1.75m

    0.20m

    0.00m

    HIGHEST RECORDED Recorded on the 12/01/2009115.4mm of rainfall

    Flood Likely 2.75m

    AVERAGE

    LOW

    2004

    Month

    Rai

    nfal

    l mm

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    2004

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    20092000-2012 Overlay

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    Rainfall Graphs & Section of River

    The valley is one of the wettest area in Britain with 800mm of rainfall annually, the wettest area being the Lake District, the valleys neighbour. Much of this rain falls mainly on its North East boundary in the Pennines, 600mm average annual rainfall. With this rain, an associated issue occurs, flooding in the lower reaches of the valley. The cause of this flooding is partly due to heavy down pours (115mm reportedly fell in just 24 hours in 2009), but also the geology and topography, these govern and control the water. Depending on the properties of the various stones and the gradient changes how the water is moving. An additional factor however, is human activity can change how the water flows over the landscape. Human activity has increased the flow rate of the water from where is falls (north east Pennines) to where it causes flooding (lower valley, Penrith to Carlisle).

    Approximate River Heights of River Eden near Penrith

  • 2009

    Month

    Rai

    nfal

    l mm

    2000-2012 Overlay

    Month

    Rai

    nfal

    l mm

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    2004

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    20092000-2012 Overlay

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    2004

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    20092000-2012 Overlay

    0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

    *Data from Met Office Weather Station in Penrith

  • 0

    75

    150

    225

    300

    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

    2000-2012Rainfall for Eden Valley 2000-2012

    Month

    Rai

    nfal

    l mm

    Rainfall Graph from 2000-2012

    Peaks in the rainfall graph often correlate with flood events in the valley, specifically Carlisle. The rain does not fall predominantly in Carlisle and cause flooding, the majority of the rain falls in the hills of the Pennines and quickly collects in the Eden river. This process of runoff is increased by human activities in the hills. During the Second World War this land was drained and its natural blanket bog habitat destroyed for grazing land for sheep. This land could retain water much better with its natural ecology; the land drains currently there merely decrease the time water takes to get to the Eden. By draining the land, the peat content in the soils decreases and this is what gives the soils their quality to retain water.The water flow rate also increases due to the steep sides to the valley and agr