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SACE STAGE 2 BIOLOGY
Practical Manual and e-manual
Teaching Notes - Version 16
Trichoglossus rubritorquis (Rainbow lorikeet)
Source: Wikimedia Commons
TABLE OF CONTENTS MATERIALS OVERVIEW 3
M1 TESTING FOR MACROMOLECULES 4
M2 NUCLEIC ACIDS 5
M3 CATALASE ACTIVITY 8
M4 RENNIN ACTIVITY 8
C1 CELL STRUCTURES 9
C2 MITOSIS 9
C3 RATE OF DIFFUSION 10
C4 RATE OF OSMOSIS 10
O1 KIDNEY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 11
O2 CHEMORECEPTORS 11
O3 RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS 12
O4 RATE OF FERMENTATION 13
E1 NATURAL SELECTION 13
E2 SUCCESSION (second hand data) 15
E3 FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION 17
E4 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 18
Appendix 1 - Suggested marking of Exemplar Practical Report 19
Appendix 2 - Suggested answers for the Practical Question 21
Publishing Information This Practical Manual, was first published in 1995 and has had annual revisions since then. It is
designed to support the teaching and learning of Stage 2 Biology as part of the South Australian
Certificate of Education. These accompanying Teaching Notes are an integral part of this Manual
and e-manual and are only available in pdf format from the SASTA website
This e-booklet is published by: Science Teaching And Resources (S.T.A.R.)
(ABN 29474198897) whose office can be contacted as follows.
Email email@example.com Phone 0418 895 560
This e-booklet is distributed by: SASTA, 249 Henley Beach road, Torrensville, Adelaide 5007
Ph. 08 83540006, Fax. 08083540008, email. firstname.lastname@example.org, www.sasta.asn.au
Library catalogue: 1. Biology 2. Practical Manual Teaching Notes
Authors: Crierie A. and Greig D.
The authors Alan Crierie is currently a senior Biology Teacher and a Deputy Principal at St Michaels College
in Adelaide. As past Chairman of the Biology Subject Advisory Committee of SACE (formerly
SSABSA), he has been very closely involved with the design and implementation of the current
SACE Biology course.
David Greig is no longer teaching in the classroom but most recently worked as a Key Teacher in
Biology at Brighton Secondary School in Adelaide. Through his business Science Teaching And
Resources (S.T.A.R.) he is working as a consultant, author, project manager and editor on a
number of science publishing projects at state, national and international level.
Copyright information The copyright of the contents of this book remains the property of the authors Alan Crierie and David Greig.
All rights reserved except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments.
While every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental
infringement where copyright has proved untraceable. They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the rightful
owner in each case.
Acknowledgements The production of these materials could not have been done without the assistance of many people
In particular we wish to thank the following for their contributions:
Greg Cole and Rebecca van Schuilenburg at SASTA for their active involvement Peter Warnes for his helpful and constructive suggestions Colin Flashman at colecandoo.com.au for the cover designs and other help Mike Badenoch for the hand drawings Jenna Crierie for help with proofreading and corrections Sophie Andonopoulos for her practical advice. Sue Lace for her practical advice The SACE Board of SA for permission to use extracts from the Stage 2 Biology subject
outline ( 2012) in this Manual and the Teaching Notes.
SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 3
MATERIALS OVERVIEW This table has been provided to assist the teacher or laboratory manager by providing, at a
glance, most of the materials that may need to be prepared in advance for these Practicals.
Please refer to the Materials listed for each Practical in the Manual for more details.
Practical Weeks before Days before Prior to lesson
M1 iodine solution potato tissue ethanol/onion epidermis aceto-orcein margarine, olive oil sodium hydroxide
microscopes slides/coverslips rubber gloves? Sharp blades Cutting boards Paper towelling
onions meat tenderizer (6% papain) 95% ethanol photocopy of pattern sheets sheets of newspaper
stirring rods/ pipettes test-tubes/ wire-loop onion extract(early in day) glue/scissors/Poster paper salt and shampoo
0.1% hydrogen peroxide pH solutions
mortar and pestle
M4 junket tablets containing rennin fresh cows milk possibly other milks
Beakers paper towel electronic balance thermometers water baths
C1 mini-grids/ocular grids prepared slides
onion tissue geranium tissue algae tissue aceto-orcein methylene blue
microscopes/slides newspaper teat pipettes sharp blades prepared slides
onion roots prepared mitosis slides
aceto-orcein stain overnight staining of root tips
microscope slides other as listed
C3 pink agar 0.1M sulfuric acid
spoon/ paper towel beakers/ balance other as listed
approx 1 potato per group potato peelers
spoon/ paper towel
kidneys dissecting board/ scalpel antiseptic solution stereo-microscope paper/ textas
various sucrose solutions as specified salty, sweet, sour and bitter solutions
paper cups cotton buds
O3 50mL syringes solutions of sodium hydrogen carbonate
Buchner flask leaves/ cork borer OH projector Sheets of tracing paper stop watch/beakers sieve / forceps
yeast suspension glucose solution
beaker/test tubes delivery tubes retort stands/ stop watches
photocopied sheets of frogs: red, green, yellow
E2 second hand data only
E3 seeds e.g. bean / pea buckets / containers nutrient solutions alfoil paper toweling
SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 4
M1 TESTING FOR MACROMOLECULES This Practical is a very good opportunity to revise and emphasize laboratory rules and safety
Materials required Part A
Methylene blue stain
microscopes slides and coverslips
This is a standard and well known test, the positive test is blue black colour. If iodine solution
does not react strongly enough, you can make some fresh solution by dissolving about 0.5g of
iodine crystals and 1g potassium iodide in 100mL distilled water. Emphasize care here, iodine
will stain most things, including skin and paper!
Methylene Blue stain works well but again emphasize that it stains things!
C. Nucleic acids
Aceto-orcein solution can be purchased or made by dissolving 3.3g orcein in 100mL glacial
acetic acid under reflux in a fume hood. This can be used as a 50:50 dilution with distilled
water. The positive test is a red colour. Suggest using fingers rather than pegs when gently
warming the slide or the slides will get too hot and crack.
Although margarine and olive oil are suggested, other materials will suffice. Students should
notice a cloudy white suspension which is insoluble lipid in the alcohol. The whiteness is
quantitative. Emphasize that ethanol is flammable and toxic! Can use methylated spirits instead
if you wish.
SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 5
M2 NUCLEIC ACIDS
Part A EXTRACTING DNA There are several cheap and simple techniques available to schools which yield impure but
nonetheless useful samples of DNA. We have chosen to use plant material to avoid the health
and ethical problems associated with the use of fresh animal tissue. We have also chosen a
technique that does not require the use of hazardous chemicals such as phenol or expensive
equipment such as a centrifuge.
STAGE 1 Preparing the onion extract
Materials required 1 large onion (about the size of a tennis ball)
clear, good quality shampoo
1 knife and chopping board
1 coffee filter bag or cheese cloth 2 Pasteur pipettes
1 large plastic filter funnel 1 litre beaker
water bath set at 600C ice bath
table salt (3g) large mixing spoon
100mL distilled water 250mL conical flask
blender (optional) thermometer
Method 1. Dissolve 3g of table salt in 70ml of distilled water. Add 10mL of shampoo and make up to
100mL with distilled water.
2. Remove the dead outer layers and then cut the onion into quarters and then chop into 1 cm slices.