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  • SACE STAGE 2 BIOLOGY

    Practical Manual and e-manual

    Teaching Notes - Version 16

    Trichoglossus rubritorquis (Rainbow lorikeet)

    Source: Wikimedia Commons

    TABLE OF CONTENTS MATERIALS OVERVIEW 3

    M1 TESTING FOR MACROMOLECULES 4

    M2 NUCLEIC ACIDS 5

    M3 CATALASE ACTIVITY 8

    M4 RENNIN ACTIVITY 8

    C1 CELL STRUCTURES 9

    C2 MITOSIS 9

    C3 RATE OF DIFFUSION 10

    C4 RATE OF OSMOSIS 10

    O1 KIDNEY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 11

    O2 CHEMORECEPTORS 11

    O3 RATE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS 12

    O4 RATE OF FERMENTATION 13

    E1 NATURAL SELECTION 13

    E2 SUCCESSION (second hand data) 15

    E3 FACTORS AFFECTING GERMINATION 17

    E4 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE 18

    Appendix 1 - Suggested marking of Exemplar Practical Report 19

    Appendix 2 - Suggested answers for the Practical Question 21

  • 2

    Publishing Information This Practical Manual, was first published in 1995 and has had annual revisions since then. It is

    designed to support the teaching and learning of Stage 2 Biology as part of the South Australian

    Certificate of Education. These accompanying Teaching Notes are an integral part of this Manual

    and e-manual and are only available in pdf format from the SASTA website

    This e-booklet is published by: Science Teaching And Resources (S.T.A.R.)

    (ABN 29474198897) whose office can be contacted as follows.

    Email dgreig@bigpond.net.au Phone 0418 895 560

    This e-booklet is distributed by: SASTA, 249 Henley Beach road, Torrensville, Adelaide 5007

    Ph. 08 83540006, Fax. 08083540008, email. officemanager@sasta.asn.au, www.sasta.asn.au

    Library catalogue: 1. Biology 2. Practical Manual Teaching Notes

    Authors: Crierie A. and Greig D.

    ISBN 978-0-9804362-9-7

    The authors Alan Crierie is currently a senior Biology Teacher and a Deputy Principal at St Michaels College

    in Adelaide. As past Chairman of the Biology Subject Advisory Committee of SACE (formerly

    SSABSA), he has been very closely involved with the design and implementation of the current

    SACE Biology course.

    David Greig is no longer teaching in the classroom but most recently worked as a Key Teacher in

    Biology at Brighton Secondary School in Adelaide. Through his business Science Teaching And

    Resources (S.T.A.R.) he is working as a consultant, author, project manager and editor on a

    number of science publishing projects at state, national and international level.

    Copyright information The copyright of the contents of this book remains the property of the authors Alan Crierie and David Greig.

    All rights reserved except under the conditions described in the Copyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments.

    While every care has been taken to trace and acknowledge copyright, the publishers tender their apologies for any accidental

    infringement where copyright has proved untraceable. They would be pleased to come to a suitable arrangement with the rightful

    owner in each case.

    Acknowledgements The production of these materials could not have been done without the assistance of many people

    and organisations.

    In particular we wish to thank the following for their contributions:

    Greg Cole and Rebecca van Schuilenburg at SASTA for their active involvement Peter Warnes for his helpful and constructive suggestions Colin Flashman at colecandoo.com.au for the cover designs and other help Mike Badenoch for the hand drawings Jenna Crierie for help with proofreading and corrections Sophie Andonopoulos for her practical advice. Sue Lace for her practical advice The SACE Board of SA for permission to use extracts from the Stage 2 Biology subject

    outline ( 2012) in this Manual and the Teaching Notes.

    http://www.sasta.asn.au/mailto:officemanager@sasta.asn.auhttp://www.sasta.asn.au/

  • SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 3

    MATERIALS OVERVIEW This table has been provided to assist the teacher or laboratory manager by providing, at a

    glance, most of the materials that may need to be prepared in advance for these Practicals.

    Please refer to the Materials listed for each Practical in the Manual for more details.

    Practical Weeks before Days before Prior to lesson

    M1 iodine solution potato tissue ethanol/onion epidermis aceto-orcein margarine, olive oil sodium hydroxide

    microscopes slides/coverslips rubber gloves? Sharp blades Cutting boards Paper towelling

    M2

    onions meat tenderizer (6% papain) 95% ethanol photocopy of pattern sheets sheets of newspaper

    stirring rods/ pipettes test-tubes/ wire-loop onion extract(early in day) glue/scissors/Poster paper salt and shampoo

    M3

    0.1% hydrogen peroxide pH solutions

    fine sand

    fresh liver

    mortar and pestle

    M4 junket tablets containing rennin fresh cows milk possibly other milks

    Beakers paper towel electronic balance thermometers water baths

    C1 mini-grids/ocular grids prepared slides

    onion tissue geranium tissue algae tissue aceto-orcein methylene blue

    microscopes/slides newspaper teat pipettes sharp blades prepared slides

    C2

    onion roots prepared mitosis slides

    aceto-orcein stain overnight staining of root tips

    microscope slides other as listed

    C3 pink agar 0.1M sulfuric acid

    spoon/ paper towel beakers/ balance other as listed

    C4

    approx 1 potato per group potato peelers

    spoon/ paper towel

    beakers/ balance

    O1

    kidneys dissecting board/ scalpel antiseptic solution stereo-microscope paper/ textas

    O2

    various sucrose solutions as specified salty, sweet, sour and bitter solutions

    as required

    paper cups cotton buds

    O3 50mL syringes solutions of sodium hydrogen carbonate

    Buchner flask leaves/ cork borer OH projector Sheets of tracing paper stop watch/beakers sieve / forceps

    O4

    yeast suspension glucose solution

    beaker/test tubes delivery tubes retort stands/ stop watches

    E1

    photocopied sheets of frogs: red, green, yellow

    scissors dice

    E2 second hand data only

    E3 seeds e.g. bean / pea buckets / containers nutrient solutions alfoil paper toweling

    E4

    Antibiotic multo-disks

    Bacterial cultures

    Agar powder

    bacterial cultures

    agar plates

    cotton buds

    methylated spirits

    forceps

    adhesive tape

  • SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 4

    M1 TESTING FOR MACROMOLECULES This Practical is a very good opportunity to revise and emphasize laboratory rules and safety

    procedures.

    Materials required Part A

    iodine solution

    potatoes

    Part B

    Methylene blue stain

    Part C

    aceto-orcein

    onions

    Part D

    margarine

    olive oil

    ethanol

    Generally

    sharp blades

    rubber gloves

    microscopes slides and coverslips

    A. Carbohydrates

    This is a standard and well known test, the positive test is blue black colour. If iodine solution

    does not react strongly enough, you can make some fresh solution by dissolving about 0.5g of

    iodine crystals and 1g potassium iodide in 100mL distilled water. Emphasize care here, iodine

    will stain most things, including skin and paper!

    B. Protein

    Methylene Blue stain works well but again emphasize that it stains things!

    C. Nucleic acids

    Aceto-orcein solution can be purchased or made by dissolving 3.3g orcein in 100mL glacial

    acetic acid under reflux in a fume hood. This can be used as a 50:50 dilution with distilled

    water. The positive test is a red colour. Suggest using fingers rather than pegs when gently

    warming the slide or the slides will get too hot and crack.

    D. Lipids

    Although margarine and olive oil are suggested, other materials will suffice. Students should

    notice a cloudy white suspension which is insoluble lipid in the alcohol. The whiteness is

    quantitative. Emphasize that ethanol is flammable and toxic! Can use methylated spirits instead

    if you wish.

  • SACE Stage 2 Biology Practical Manual Version 16 Teaching Notes S.T.A.R. 2014 5

    M2 NUCLEIC ACIDS

    Part A EXTRACTING DNA There are several cheap and simple techniques available to schools which yield impure but

    nonetheless useful samples of DNA. We have chosen to use plant material to avoid the health

    and ethical problems associated with the use of fresh animal tissue. We have also chosen a

    technique that does not require the use of hazardous chemicals such as phenol or expensive

    equipment such as a centrifuge.

    STAGE 1 Preparing the onion extract

    Materials required 1 large onion (about the size of a tennis ball)

    clear, good quality shampoo

    1 knife and chopping board

    1 coffee filter bag or cheese cloth 2 Pasteur pipettes

    1 large plastic filter funnel 1 litre beaker

    water bath set at 600C ice bath

    table salt (3g) large mixing spoon

    100mL distilled water 250mL conical flask

    blender (optional) thermometer

    Method 1. Dissolve 3g of table salt in 70ml of distilled water. Add 10mL of shampoo and make up to

    100mL with distilled water.

    2. Remove the dead outer layers and then cut the onion into quarters and then chop into 1 cm slices.

    3. Put

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