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  • ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis Tbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti socialur da politikur mecnierebaTa fakulteti

    magda memaniSvili

    erovnul-demokratiuli mimarTulebis

    gazeTi saqarTvelo 1915-1921w.w.

    (afxazeTis, samaCablosa da saingilos problematika)

    d i s e r t a c i a

    Jurnalistikis mimarTulebiT filosofiur mecnierebaTa

    doqtoris akademiuri xarisxis mosapoveblad

    mecnier-xelmZRvaneli

    filosofiur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori

    dali CikvilaZe

    Tbilisi

    2011

  • 2

    s a r C e v i

    Sesavali ............................................................................................... 4 - 21

    I afxazeTi ..................................................................................... 22 - 89

    1. afxazeTi XX saukunis pirvel ocwleulSi

    1.1. teritoria, mosaxleobis eTnikuri da religiuri Semadgenloba.

    1.2. socialur-ekonomikuri mdgomareoba

    1.3. politikuri situacia.

    1. gazeT saqarTvelos Tvalsawieridan

    danaxuli antiqarTuli moZraoba da

    separatizmi afxazeTSi

    2.1. enis sakiTxi

    2.2. marTlmadidebluri eklesiis sakiTxi

    2.3 politikuri gadatrialebebis mcdelobebi afxazeTSi

    2.4.GsaqarTvelo patrioti afxazebis Sesaxeb

    2. afxazeTSi menSevikuri mTavrobis

    politikis kritika

    3.1. menSevikuri mTavrobis sakadro da saarCevno politikis kritika

    3.2 soWis SenarCunebisaTavis arasaTanado brZola

    3.3 afxazeTSi miwebis gadanawilebis politikis kritika

    3. afxazeTis Sesaxeb gamoqveynebuli

    publikaciebis statistika; daskvnebi

  • 3

    II samaCablo ............................................................................................... 90 - 104

    1. samaCablo XX saukunis pirvel ocwleulSi

    2. separatizmi samaCabloSi

    3. samxreT oseTis avtonomia saqarTvelos pirvel respublikaSi

    III saingilo ................................................................................... 105 123

    1. XX saukunis ociani wlebis saingilo

    2. socialuri problemebi saingiloSi

    3. religiuri brZola saingiloSi

    4. saingilos istoriisa da

    tradiciis asaxva

    saqarTvelos furclebze.

    daskvna

    gamoyenebuli literatura

    danarTi (gazeT saqarTveloSi 1915-21 wlebSi afxazeTze, samaCablosa da saingiloze gamoqveynebuli publikaciebis nusxa)

  • 4

    Sesavali

    XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli presis istoria jerjerobiT

    mxolod fragmentulad aris Seswavlili. samocdaaTwlianma komunisturma

    akrZalvam am periodis sazogadoebrivi azrovnebis kvlevis procesi

    sagrZnoblad Seaferxa, amitomac 1900-1921 wlebis qarTuli beWduri

    gamocemebis kvleva Tanamedrove mecnierebisaTvis dResdReobiT didi

    gamowvevaa. amocanas kidev ufro rTulad gasamklavebels xdis ori

    garemoeba. pirveli am periodSi gamomavali Jurnal-gazeTebis

    mravlricxovnoba-mravalgvarobaa; meore ki _ epoqis sirTule .

    XX saukunis dasawyisis qarTuli presis mkvlevari SoTa gagoSiZe

    1900-1921 wlebSi saqarTvloSi gamomavali Jurnal-gazeTebis saerTo

    raodenobad 471 gamocemas asaxelebs1. aq Sedis literaturuli, dargobrivi,

    rusuli da sxvadasxva enovani Jurnal-gazeTebi da, rac mTavaria, partiuli

    presa. XX saukunis dasawyisi xom sxvadasxva politikuri partiis Seqmnis,

    Semdeg am partiaTa danawevrebisa da axali partiebis Seqmnis periodia.

    am procesis paralelurad iqmneboda, ixureboda da axla sxva

    saxelebiT fuZndeboda axal-axali perioduli gamocemebi. maTgan

    umravlesobas xanmokle sicocxle hqoda, rasac ver vityviT Cveni

    sadisertacio kvlevis saganze yoveldRiur gazeT saqarTveloze,

    romelic, marTalia xanmokle SeferxebebiT, magram eqvsi wlis ganmavlobaSi

    gamodioda.

    1900-1921 wlebis perioduli literaturis kvlevis meore Tanmdevi

    sirTule am wlebSi mimdinare istoriuli procesebis daxlarTuloba da

    swrafi cvlilebaa. magaliTad, im eqvsi wlis ganamvlobaSi, rodesac gazeTi

    saqarTvelo gamodioda, msoflioSi moxda erTi didi omi (pirveli

    msoflio omi), ruseTSi _ ori revolucia; amierkavkasiaSi _ Seiqmna erTiani

    saxelmwifo, romelic Semdeg sam sxvadasxva respublikad daiSala, samive

    respublikaSi xSirad xdeboda ajanyebebi, SeTqmulebebi, politikuri

    gadatrialebis mcdelobebi. metic, maT Soris samxedro dapirispirebebi,

    omebic ki Sedga, rac sabolood sabWoTa ruseTis mier samives okupaciiT

    dasrulda.

  • 5

    am procesebis dros Cveni qveyna kargavda teritoriebs. Tumca iyo

    teritoriebis xanmokle SemoerTebis faqtebic. magaliTad, 1918 wels

    qarTvelma generalma mazniaSvilma gagra, soWi da tuafsec ki aiRo. magram

    davkargeT baTumi da samxreT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan nawilze

    saqarTvelos respublika politikur kontrols ver axorcielebda.

    am urTulesi sagareo, Tu saSinao politikuri mdgomareobiT

    gajerebul istoriul epoqaSi gamodioda saqarTvelos erovnul-

    demokratiuli partiis perioduli organo gazeTi saqarTvelo.

    1. mizani, amocanebi

    Cveni disertacia warmoadgens 1915-21 wlebSi gamomavali saqarTvelos

    erovnul-demokratiuli partiis beWduri organos _ yoveldRiur gazeT

    saqarTvelos kvlevis mcdelobas. kerZod ki, im sagazeTo publikaciebis

    analizs, romelic saqarTvelos sam regions _ afxazeTs, samaCablosa da

    saingilos _ yofa-cxovrebas asaxavs.

    sakvlevi Temis SerCeva orma garemoebam ganapiroba. pirveli, gazeT

    saqarTvelos yovelmxrivi Seswavla erT disertaciaSi SeuZlebeli iyo,

    radgan es yoveldRiuri perioduli organo TiTqmis eqvsi wlis

    ganmavlobaSi gamodioda (sul gamosulia 1000 nomerze meti, Tu CavTvliT

    1915-16 wlebSi gamomaval sakvirao damatebasac) da aSuqebda maSindeli

    yofis TiTqmis yvela sferos _ politikas, ekonomikas, saerTaSriso

    cxovrebas, socialur problemebs, erovnebaTaSoris konfliqtebs,

    politikur partiaTa dapirispirebas, saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela regionis

    cxovrebas, xelovnebisa da mecnierebis sakiTxebs... amdenad, gazeT

    saqarTvelos kvleva erTi, an ramdenime konkretuli kuTxis gareSe Cven

    Zalebs mravalgzis aRemateboda.

    meore garemoeba aris is, rom XX saukunis dasawyisSi gaZlierda

    saqarTvelos uZvelesi kuTxeebis _ afxazeTis, samaCablosa da saingilos

    dedasamSoblosagan gancalkavebis procesi. dResdReobiT es procesi

    dasrulebulia da saqarTvelo yovel Rones xmarobs ukuprocesis, anu am

    regionebis SemoerTebis dasawyebad. amasaTan, samaCablosa da afxazeTis

    dabrunebis imedi Tu jer kidev cocxalia, igives ver vityviT saqarTvelos

    uZveles teritoriaze _ gare kaxeTze/saingiloze.

  • 6

    maSasadame, SevarCieT is regionebi, romlebzec dResdReobiT ar

    vrceldeba saqarTvelos iurisdiqcia da romelTa separaciis procesi XX

    saukunis dasawyisSi intensiurad mimdinareobda.

    rogor moxda, rom Cveni qveynis uZveles kuTxeebze nel-nela

    kontroli davkargeT? ra sagareo da saSinao mizezebma Seuwyo xeli

    saqarTvelos teritoriuli mTlianobis rRvevas? ra iyo am procesis

    gamomwvev mizezTagan garduvali, da ra Secdomebma daaCqara

    saqarTvelosgan afxazeTis, samaCablosa da saingilos mowyveta?

    SekiTxvebi dResac Zalzed aqtualuria, Tumca xelSeuvali, calsaxa

    da martivi pasuxebi am kiTxvebze ar arsebobs. amitom, bunebrivia, Cven ar

    gvaqvs pretenzia, rom is daskvnebi, rasac kvlevis manZilze mivageniT, aris

    amomwuravi da yovelmxrivi. Cven mxolod is mizezebi gamovkveTeT,

    romelmac, gazeT saqarTvelos publicistTa azriT, gamoiwvia afxazeTis,

    samaCablosa da saingilos gadaqarTuleba, anu saqarTvelosgan gamijnva.

    maTgan zogi sayovelTaod cnobilia (magaliTad, ruseTis imperiis

    kolonialisturi politika, regionebis rusifikacia), zogi ki _ naklebad.

    Cveni yvela daskvna aris gazeT saqarTvelos publicistTa

    dakvirvebis Sedegi, maTi TvalTaxedvidan, maTi Tvalsawieridan danaxuli

    procesi. bunebrivia, isini mecnierebi ar iyvnen da es sakiTxebi mecnieruli

    kuTxiT ar ukvleviaT. isini iyvnen Jurnalistebi, zogjer _ Zalian

    subiqeturebic, radgan politikuri partiis, kerZod ki erovnul-demokratTa

    gazeTSi muSaobdnen. zogi maTgani partiis wevri iyo, zogic _ ara, magram

    am ukanasknelTa msoflmxedveloba da politikuri Sexedulebac erovnul-

    demokratiuli mimarTulebisa gaxldaT.

    amis miuxedavad, migvaCnia, rom maTi TvaliT danaxuli problemebis

    kvleva qarTuli sazogadoebrivi azris SeswavlisTvis mniSvnelovania,

    radgan teritoriuli mTlianobis problemis gaSuqeba gazeT saqarTvelos

    prioritets warmoadgenda. es 1915 wlis 24 maiss gamosul gazeTis

    pirvelsave nomerSi gamoCnda. am nomerSi gamoqveynda erovnul-

    demokratiuli partiis erT-erTi ideologis, SemdgomSi partiis

    Tavmjdomaris, gazeT saqarTvelos damfuZneblis spiridon kedias statia

    Cveni sityva2.

  • 7

    spiridon kedia werda: erovnuli sxeuli magrad, mWidrod unda idges

    mWidro teritoriazed, romelic erTsa da imave dros misi akvanicaa da

    saflavic. ar vekrZalviT vsTqvaT, Cveni miswrafebis lursmani am akvan-

    saflavis dacvaa, saqarTvelos sazRvrebis aRdgenaa... saqarTvelo yvela

    qarTvelisaa, misi sazRvari yvela Cvenis sazRvaria. maS nuRa viqnebiT

    gaTiSuli am Tavi da Tavi sakiTxis garSemo. fsiqologiurad SemovimijnoT

    Tavi Cveni da nivTieri zRude garSemovudgaT Cvensa qveyanas3. (xazi Cvenia

    m.m.)

    saqarTvelos kidev erTi publicisti mixeil javaxiSvili ki werda:

    Cveni winaprebi sul imis cdaSi iyvnen, rom SeeqmnaT saqarTvelos

    bunebrivi strategiuli sazRvrebi da CaeketaT karebebi da gzebi momavali

    artaanidan, axalqalaqidan, yazaidan, darialidan da saingilo-daRestnidan,

    saqarTvelos tragedia maSin daiwyo, rodesac mtrebma es karebebi

    Semoamtvries da Semosasevi gzebi gaikafes4.

    maSasadame, Cveni