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User-Centered Agile MethodsCopyright 2010 by Morgan & ClaypoolAll rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted inany form or by any meanselectronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or any other except for brief quotations inprinted reviews, without the prior permission of the publisher.User-Centered Agile MethodsHugh Beyerwww.morganclaypool.comISBN: 9781608453726 paperbackISBN: 9781608453733 ebookDOI 10.2200/S00286ED1V01Y201002HCI010A Publication in the Morgan & Claypool Publishers seriesSYNTHESIS LECTURES ON HUMAN-CENTEREDINFORMATICSLecture #10Series Editor: John M. Carroll, Penn State UniversitySeries ISSNSynthesis Lectures on Human-Centered InformaticsPrint 1946-7680 Electronic 1946-7699Synthesis Lectures onHuman-Centered InformaticsEditorJohn M. Carroll, Penn State UniversityHuman-Centered Informatics (HCI) is the intersection of the cultural, the social, the cognitive, and theaesthetic with computing and information technology. It encompasses a huge range of issues, theories,technologies, designs, tools, environments and human experiences in knowledge work, recreation andleisure activity, teaching and learning, and the potpourri of everyday life. The series will publishstate-of-the-art syntheses, case studies, and tutorials in key areas. It will share the focus of leadinginternational conferences in HCI.User-Centered Agile MethodsHugh Beyer2010Experience-Centered Design: Designers, Users, and Communities in DialoguePeter Wright and John McCarthy2010Experience Design: Technology for All the Right ReasonsMarc Hassenzahl2010Designing and Evaluating Usable Technology in Industrial Research: Three Case StudiesClare-Marie Karat and John Karat2010Interacting with InformationAnn Blandford and Simon Atteld2010Designing for User Engagement: Aesthetic and Attractive User InterfacesAlistair Sutcliffe2009Context-Aware Mobile Computing: Affordances of Space, Social Awareness, and SocialInuenceGeri Gay2009ivStudies of Work and the Workplace in HCI: Concepts and TechniquesGraham Button and Wes Sharrock2009Semiotic Engineering Methods for Scientic Research in HCIClarisse Sieckenius de Souza and Carla Faria Leito2009Common Ground in Electronically Mediated ConversationAndrew Monk2008User-Centered Agile MethodsHugh BeyerInContext Designwww.InContextDesign.comSYNTHESIS LECTURES ON HUMAN-CENTERED INFORMATICS #10CM& cLaypool Morgan publishers&ABSTRACTWith the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing re-lationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being dis-rupted. Agile methods introduce newconcepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user),short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals t in this new world? Agile methods alsobring a new mindsetno big design, no specications, minimal planningwhich conict with theneeds of UX design.This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UXcommunity and describes strategiesUX people can use to contribute effectively in an Agile team, overcome key weaknesses in Agilemethods as typically implemented, and produce a more robust process and more successful designs.We present a process combining the best practices of Contextual Design, a leading approach touser-centered design, with those of Agile development.KEYWORDSagile, agile development, scrum, xp, extreme programming, usability, usability engi-neering, HCI, UX, user experience, user-centered design, customer-centered design,human-centered design, iterative design, design, design methods, methodology, user in-terface design, user research, project management, user experience project management,human factors, prototyping, contextual inquiry, contextual design, user data collection,interactive designTo Karen Holtzblatt, a great collaboratorixContents1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Common Agile Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.1 Scrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 XP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Agile Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.1 There is Only One Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93.2 The User Is on the Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.3 Plans and Architectural Work are a Waste of Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103.4 Face-to-Face Communication is Better Than Documentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.5 Short Sprints are Good. Shorter Sprints are Better . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123.6 Continual Feedback Guides the Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143.7 How These Values Go Wrong in Practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Best Practices for Integrating UXwith Agile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.1 Get User Feedback from Real Users in Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174.2 A Phase 0 to Dene System Scope and Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194.3 UI Design Done One Iteration Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214.4 Validation Done One Iteration Behind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224.5 Parallel UX Stream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224.6 Programmer/Designer Holiday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234.7 Architectural Spikes for Difcult Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244.8 UX as a Full Team Member . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Structure of a User-Centered Agile Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275.1 Phase 0: Project Denition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27x CONTENTS5.1.1 Contextual Inquiry and Afnity Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285.1.2 The Afnity Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305.1.3 Work Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305.1.4 Personas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335.1.5 Visioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345.1.6 Storyboards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365.1.7 User Environment Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385.1.8 Paper Prototyping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395.2 The Release Planning Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415.2.1 Writing User Stories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 415.2.2 Estimating Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425.2.3 Planning the Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435.3 Running Sprints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445.3.1 Sprint Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455.3.2 Working with Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.3.3 Sprint Interview Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465.3.4 The Sprint Interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475.3.5 The Interpretation Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Structuring Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496.1 Jumping on a Moving Train . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 496.2 System Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506.3 Major New Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Authors Biography . . . . . . . .