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APPLIED PHOTOVOLTAICS Second EditionFirst published by Earthscan in the UK and USA in 2007 Copyright 2007, ARC Centre for Advanced Silicon Photovoltaics and Photonics All rights reserved ISBN-10: 1-84407-401-3 paperback ISBN-13: 978-1-84407-401-3 paperback Typesetting by Roman Balla Printed and bound in the UK by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall Cover design by Mike Fell For a full list of publications please contact: Earthscan812 Camden High Street London, NW1 0JH, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7387 8558 Fax: +44 (0)20 7387 8998 Email: earthinfo@earthscan.co.uk Web: www.earthscan.co.uk22883 Quicksilver Drive, Sterling, VA 20166-2012, USA Earthscan is an imprint of James & James (Science Publishers) Ltd and publishes in association with the International Institute for Environment and Development A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in-Publication data has been applied for. The paper used for this book is FSC-certified and totally chlorine-free. FSC (the Forest Stewardship Council) is an internationalnetwork to promote responsible management of the worlds forests. APPLIED PHOTOVOLTAICS Second EditionS.R. Wenham M.A. Green M.E. Watt R. Corkish ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSIn recent years, the undergraduate subject Applied Photovoltaics, originally within the School of Electrical Engineering and now within the Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering at the University of New South Wales, has been taught by Dean Travers, Christiana Honsberg, Armin Aberle and Alistair Sproul. Alistair Sproul has provided significant help in the preparation of this edition, especially in proofreading, advising on corrections and supplying data. The feedback from students, advice on content and organisation and the additional course material provided are gratefully acknowledged. The contributions from numerous members of the Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering at the University of New South Wales, particularly those of Jenny Hansen, Roman Balla, Robert Largent, Matt Edwards and Robert Passey, and from David Roche of Greenwatt Pty Ltd, with regard to typing, formatting, figures and eventually typesetting, have been very valuable and greatly appreciated. Permission to use or adapt figures is gratefully acknowledged: CSIRO Australia (Fig. 1.11), Dr. Aden and Marjorie Meinel (Fig. 1.12), Australian Bureau of Meteorology (Fig. 1.13), Sandia National Laboratories (Figs. 6.7, 6.8, 7.1, 7.2, 9.3, 11.1, 11.3), IEEE (Figs. 4.14, 5.1, 9.5, 10.4, 10.5, 10.7, 10.8, 10.10, 10.11, 10.13, G.1, G.2), Telecommunications Society of Australia (Figs. 6.2, 6.3, 6.4), Silcar Pty Ltd. Design & Construction (Figure 8.2), Springer Science and Business Media (Figures 8.3, 8.4, 11.12, 11.16, 11.17), Halcrow & Partners (Figs.8.5, 8.6, 8.7, 11.8, 11.9, 11.11, ,11.15, H.4), Regional Energy Resources Information Centre (Fig. 11.2), M. Sahdev (Fig. 11.5), Thomson (Fig. 11.6) and the McGraw-Hill Book Companies (Figs. 1.14, 1.17, 11.10, 11.13, 11.14). ASTM International is acknowledged for the tabulated data of Appendix A, as is the assistance with that table of Daryl Myers and Keith Emery (NREL). CONTENTSChapter 1 THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SUNLIGHT 31.1 Particle-wave duality 31.2 Blackbody radiation 41.3 The sun and its radiation 51.4 Solar radiation 61.5 Direct and diffuse radiation 81.6 The Greenhouse Effect 101.7 Apparent motion of the sun 111.8 Solar insolation data and estimation 121.8.1 Extraterrestrial radiation 131.8.2 Terrestrial global radiation on a horizontal surface 131.8.3 Global and diffuse components 191.8.4 Radiation on tilted surfaces 221.9 Solar energy and photovoltaics 25Chapter 2 SEMICONDUCTORS AND P-N JUNCTIONS 312.1 Semiconductors 31vi2.1.1 The bond model 322.1.2 The band model 332.1.3 Doping 332.2 Semiconductor types 342.2.1 Crystalline silicon 342.2.2 Multicrystalline silicon 342.2.3 Amorphous silicon 352.2.4 Thin film crystalline silicon 362.3 Absorption of light 362.4 Recombination 372.5 p-n junctions 38Chapter 3 THE BEHAVIOUR OF SOLAR CELLS 433.1 Effect of light 433.2 Spectral response 473.3 Effect of temperature 493.4 Effect of parasitic resistances 51Chapter 4 CELL PROPERTIES AND DESIGN 574.1 Efficiencies 574.2 Optical losses 584.3 Recombination losses 624.4 Top contact design 634.4.1 Bulk and sheet resistivities 634.4.2 Grid spacings 654.4.3 Other losses 674.5 Laboratory cells versus industry requirements 694.6 The Laser Grooved, Buried Contact Solar Cell 70Chapter 5 PV CELL INTERCONNECTION AND MODULE FABRICATION755.1 Module and circuit design 755.2 Identical cells 755.3 Non-identical cells 765.4 Non-identical modules 765.5 Hot-spot heating 795.6 Module structure 835.7 Environmental protection 845.8 Thermal considerations 855.9 Electrical insulation 885.10 Mechanical protection 895.11 Degradation and failure modes 89vii 5.12 Embodied energy and life cycle issues 92Chapter 6STAND-ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM COMPONENTS 976.1 Introduction 976.2 Stand-alone PV system design 996.3 Solar modules 1006.4 Batteries 1016.4.1 Types 1016.4.2 Applications 1016.4.3 Requirements 1026.4.4 Efficiency 1026.4.5 Power rating and capacity 1026.4.6 Depth-of-discharge 1036.5 Lead-acid batteries 1036.5.1 Types 1036.5.2 Plate material 1036.5.3 Charging regimes 1046.5.4 Efficiencies 1056.5.5 Benchmarking and categorisation of similar use 1056.6 Other electrical charge storage methods 1066.6.1 Nickel-cadmium batteries 1066.6.2 Nickel-metal-hydride batteries 1066.6.3 Rechargeable alkaline manganese (RAM) batteries 1076.6.4 Lithium-ion and lithium-polymer batteries 1076.6.5 Redox-flow batteries 1076.6.6 Super capacitors 1076.7 Power conditioning and regulation 1086.7.1 Diodes 1086.7.2 Regulators 1086.7.3 Inverters 1126.8 Balance of system components 1146.8.1 Wiring 1146.8.2 Over-current protection 1146.8.3 Switches 1156.8.4 Connectors 1156.8.5 Earthing (grounding) 1166.8.6 Lightning protection 1166.8.7 Metering and alarms 1166.8.8 Battery housing and signage 1166.8.9 Housing of electronics 1176.8.10 Module mounting 117Chapter 7 DESIGNING STAND-ALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 1257.1 Introduction 1257.2 System availability 126viii7.3 Hybrid systems 1277.4 A simplified PV system design approach 1287.5 Sandia National Laboratory approach 1307.6 Australian Standard AS4509.2 1317.7 System design software 132Chapter 8 SPECIFIC PURPOSE PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS 1358.1 Introduction 1358.2 Space 1358.3 Marine navigational aids 1368.4 Telecommunications 1368.4.1 Transportable PV power supplies 1378.4.2 Radio telephone services 1388.4.3 Mobile phone networks 1398.4.4 Optical fibre networks 1398.5 Cathodic protection 1408.5.1 System sizing 1408.5.2 Controllers 1418.5.3 Power sources 1418.6 Water pumping 1448.7 Consumer products for indoor use 1478.8 Battery chargers 1488.9 Photovoltaics for developing countries 1488.10 Refrigeration 1498.11 Photovoltaic powered transport 1508.12 Solar cars 1518.13 Lighting 1528.14 Remote monitoring 1538.15 Direct-drive applications 1548.16 Electric fences 155Chapter 9 REMOTE AREA POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS 1619.1 Household power systems 1619.1.1 The choice between AC and DC 1639.1.2 Appliances 1639.1.3 Consumer education 1679.1.4 Photovoltaic-diesel/petrol generator hybrid systems 1679.1.5 Diesel generators 1689.1.6 Petrol generators 1709.1.7 Hybrid system design 1709.2 RAPS system costs 1739.3 Portable RAPS systems 173ix9.3.1 Portable systems for remote aboriginal communities 1739.3.2 Integrated solar home systems 1749.3.3 Stationpower1749.4 Reliability and maintenance 1759.5 Government assistance schemes 175Chapter 10 GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS 18110.1 Introduction 18110.2 PV systems in buildings 18210.2.1 Module mounting approaches 18310.2.2 The inverter 18510.2.3 On-site storage 18610.2.4 Size and economics 18810.2.5 Other issues 18810.3 Utility applications for photovoltaics 18910.4 Design issues for central power stations 19010.4.1 Cell interconnection 19110.5 Safety 19310.5.1 Islanding 19410.6 The value of PV-generated electricity 19510.6.1 Energy credit 19510.6.2 Capacity credit 19710.6.3 Distributed benefits 19710.6.4 Example 1Distribution Feeder 1103, Kerman, California 19910.6.5 Example 2Kalbarri, Western Australia 20110.7 International PV programs 20110.7.1 USA 20110.7.2 Japan 20410.7.3 Europe 20410.7.4 India 20610.7.5 China 20610.7.6 Australia 206Chapter 11 PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEM COMPONENTS 21511.1 Introduction 21511.2 System configurations 21611.3 Water pumps 21811.3.1 Centrifugal pumps 22011.3.2 Displacement or volumetric pumps 22211.4 Motors 22611.4.1 Introduction 22611.4.2 DC motors 228x11.4.3 AC motors 23111.4.4 Motor losses 23211.4.5 Integrated pump/motor machines 23211.5 Power conditioning circuitry 23211.6 Batteries 23611.7 Array wiring and mounting 23811.7.1 Array wiring 23811.7.2 Array mounting 238Chapter 12 PV WATER PUMPING SYSTEM DESIGN 24312.1 Introduction 24312.2 Basic steps in system design 24412.3 Design of a directly-coupled system 245Chapter 13 STANDARD AM0 AND AM1.5 SPECTRA 249Chapter 14 EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATING SUN POSITION 255Chapter 15 CHARACTERISTIC DAYS AND DECLINATIONS 257Chapter 16 SOME INSOLATION DATA SOURCES 259D.1 Ground-based measurements 259D.2 Satellitederived data 260D.3 Australia and New Zealand 260D.4 Europe 261D.5 Hong Kong 261D.6 USA 261D.7 Algeria 262D.8 Brazil 262D.9 regression constants 262D.10 Theoretical models and calculators 263D.11 Global Gazetteer 263Chapter 17 STANDARDS 265E.1 ASTM international 265E.2 AustraliaStandards AUSTRALIA 267E.3 CanadaStandards Council of Canada 268E.4 CHINAStandardization administration of china (SAC) 268E.5 EUROpEAN COMMITTEE FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL STANDARDIZATION (CENELEC) 270E.6 GERMANYDeutsches Institut fr Normung (DIN) 272xiE.7 GLOBAL APPROVAL PROGRAM FOR PHOTOVOLTAICS (PVGAP) 274E.8 IND