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  • 1. GCSEEnglishAndrew Bennett Series Editor:Jayne de Courcy

2. PerfectBoundAn e-book from HarperCollins Publishers7785 Fulham Palace RoadHammersmith, London W6 8JBFirst published 2001 HarperCollinsPublishers Ltd, 2001Andrew Bennett asserts the moral right to be identified as theauthor of this workAcrobat eBook Reader edition v 1. April 2001ISBN: 0-00-712980-7All rights reserved. You have been granted a non-exclusive, non-transferable licence to access and read the text of this e-book on-screen. Unless expressly authorised no part of this text mayreproduced, stored in an information retrieval system, or trans-mitted, down-loaded, de-compiled or reverse engineered in anyform or by any means now known or hereinafter invented withoutthe express prior permission of the publishers.Design by Gecko Limitedwww.fireandwater.com/ebooksii 3. ContentsGet the most out of your Instant Revision e-Book __________ivReading prose fiction ________________________________1Reading poetry ______________________________________9Reading drama ____________________________________17Reading beneath the surface __________________________21Comparing texts ____________________________________25Settings __________________________________________29Language and devices in fiction ________________________33Structure in fiction texts ____________________________37Types of non-fiction texts ____________________________41Media texts________________________________________45Fact and opinion ____________________________________49Following an argument ______________________________53Structure in non-fiction texts __________________________57Presentational devices ______________________________61Language in non-fiction texts __________________________65Spelling __________________________________________69Punctuation ______________________________________73Vocabulary and style ________________________________77Sentence structures ________________________________81Structuring whole texts ______________________________85Presenting written work______________________________89Writing __________________________________________93Organising talk ____________________________________109Active listening____________________________________113Pre-release materials ______________________________117Examination hints ________________________________119Acknowledgements ________________________________123iii 4. Get the most out of your Instant Revision e-Book 1Learn and remember what you need to know. This bookcontains all the really important things you need to knowfor your exam. All the information is set out clearly andconcisely, making it easy for you to revise. 2Find out what you dont know. The Check yourself questionsand Score chart help you to see quickly and easily the topicsyoure good at and those youre not so good at. Print outthe Score charts from the separate printable e-book and keepa record of your progress.Whats in this book?1 The facts just what you need to knowReading and WritingG There are sections covering all the important reading and writingtopics that you will need in your GCSE English exam.G The author uses carefully chosen examples from fiction and non-fiction texts to show you how to improve your skills.Speaking and ListeningG These sections tell you how you can improve your performance.Exam guidanceG These sections give you hints on how to prepare for your examsand on how to tackle exam questions.iv 5. 2 Check yourself questions find out how muchyou know and boost your gradeG Each Check yourself is linked to one or more facts page. The numbersafter the topic heading in the Check yourself tell you which facts pagethe Check yourself is linked to.G The questions ask you to demonstrate the types of skills you willneed to use in the exams. They will show you what you are good atand what you need to improve on.G The reverse side of each Check yourself gives you the answers plustutorial help and guidance to boost your exam grade.G There are points for each question. The total number of points foreach Check yourself is always 20. When you check your answers, fill inthe score box alongside each answer with the number of points youfeel you scored.3 The Score chart an instant picture of yourstrengths and weaknessesG Score chart (1) lists all the Check yourself pages.G As you complete each Check yourself, record your points on the Scorechart. This will show you instantly which areas you need to spendmore time on.G Score chart (2) is a graph which lets you plot your points againstGCSE grades. This will give you a rough idea of how you are doingin each area. Of course, this is only a rough idea because thequestions arent real exam questions!Use this Instant Revision e-book on yourown or revise with a friend or relative.See who can get the highest score!v 6. READINGPROSE FICTION (1)Examiners will expect you to explain how writers create interestingcharacters and use them to convey ideas and attitudes. There are threebasic ways of doing this, although often they will be used in combination.Character through descriptionThis is the first description of Mrs Kingshaw in Im the King of the Castle bySusan Hill: She was widowed, she was thirty-seven, and she was to become what he had termed an informal housekeeper.There is no physical description, so we have no idea at this stage whatMrs Kingshaw looks like. Our interest is gained by making us wonder, forexample, what has attracted Mr Hooper to Mrs Kingshaw? What does hemean by informal housekeeper? So the authors technique is one ofgiving a little information to make us want to read on.Descriptions may be more detailed. This is Marian in The Go-Betweenby L. P Hartley: . Her fathers long eyelids drooped over her eyes, leaving under them a glint of blue so deep and liquid that it might have been shining through an unshed tear. Her hair was bright with sunshine, but her face, which was full like her mothers, only pale rose-pink instead of cream, wore a stern brooding look that her small curved nose made almost hawk-like.You could sketch Marians appearance from this information, but notMrs Kingshaw. However, there is a similarity in the descriptions, and itis an important technique which you should comment on when writingabout character. This is the implicit meaning in the descriptions; thatis, what the authors are suggesting about the characters. Marian isobviously beautiful, but words such as stern, brooding and hawk-like hint at harsh elements in her character; the lack of informationabout Mrs Kingshaw makes her seem mysterious and even a littlethreatening. Susan Hill and L. P Hartley have got us speculating about .their characters in one case through lack of detail, and in the otherthrough the amount of detail!1 7. READING PROSE FICTION(2)Character through actionRather than simply describe them, the author may show us charactersdoing things. Our reactions to what they do help us decide what kindof people they are. When Billy Casper in A Kestrel for a Knave washes hishands after a fight at school, he plays with a soap bubble:He tilted his hand and shifted his head to catchthe colours from different angles and in differentlights, and while he was looking it vanished,leaving him looking at a lathered palm.What is the author, Barry Hines, telling us? Despite his problems, Billy isa sensitive lad who delights in the natural world around him. On a morebasic level, he is not used to having hot water and soap to wash with!Character through speechSquealer in Animal Farm by George Orwell shows his character throughwhat he says. Here we see his cunning and disregard for the otheranimals: We pigs are brain workers. The whole management and organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over your welfare. It is for your sake that we drink that milk and eat those apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Yes, Jones would come back!It is what he says which shows Squealers nature. Sometimes it will behow a character says something which is revealing. In The Darkness OutThere by Penelope Lively, Mrs Rutter shows how little she minds aboutthe death of a German airman (but also her anger at the death of herown husband in the war) by commenting, Tit for tat....2 8. Check yourself 1Reading prose fiction (1 2)1 What should you comment on in descriptions of characters? (1)2 How can a writer use action to reveal character? (1)3 In what two ways can character be revealed through speech? (2)4 What do you learn about the character of the boy in this excerptfrom William Goldings Lord of the Flies? What details help youform your ideas? (6)He was a boy of perhaps six years, sturdy and fair, hisclothes torn, his face covered with a sticky mess of fruit.His trousers had been lowered for an obvious purpose andhad only been pulled back half-way. He jumped off thepalm terrace into the sand and his trousers fell about hisankles; he stepped out of them and trotted to theplatform.... As he received the reassurance of somethingpurposeful being done he began to look satisfied, and hisonly clean digit, a pink thumb, slid into his mouth.5 What do this girlsactions (from TheShe stopped to pick grass stems out ofDarkness Out There her sandal; she saw the neat print of the strap-marks against her sunburn, pink-by Penelope Lively) white on brown. Somebody had said shetell you about her had pretty feet, once: she looked at themcharacter? (4) clean and plump and neat on the grass.6 What does this dialogue tell you about the three characters inSalt on the Snow by Rukshana Smith? (6)I saw an ad for a volunteer agency today, Julie remarked. Ithought I might find out about it. Theyre asking for helpersto get old peoples shopping. Dad looked up, his mouthfull. Do-gooders! he scoffed. Charity work! You know Idont hold with that sort of thing. Dont upset yourself,Jack, soothed his wife, pouring him a cup of tea. 3 9. ANSWERS & TUTORIALSSCORE1 Implicit or suggested