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This page intentionally left blankEssays on Kants AnthropologyKants lectures on anthropology capture him at the height of hisintellectual power and at crucial stages in the development of hisphilosophical system. They are also immensely important for advanc-ing our understanding of Kants conception of anthropology, its de-velopment, and the notoriously difcult relationship between it andthe critical philosophy.This collection of new essays by some of the leading philosophi-cal commentators on Kant offers the rst comprehensive assessmentof the philosophical importance of this material that should never-theless prove of interest to historians of ideas and political theorists.There are two broad approaches adopted: A number of the essaysconsider the systematic relations of anthropology to the criticalphilosophy, especially speculative knowledge and ethics. Other essaysfocus on the anthropology as a major source for the clarication ofboth the content and development of particular Kantian doctrines.The volume will also serve as an interpretative complement to aforthcoming translation of the lectures in the Cambridge Edition of theWorks of Immanuel Kant.Brian Jacobs has taught political philosophy at Cornell Universityand is currently president of Akademos, Inc., an Internet companydedicated to new models of course material distribution for highereducation.Patrick Kain is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Purdue University.Essays on Kants AnthropologyEdited byBRIAN JACOBSPATRICK KAINcaxniioci uwiviisir\ iiissCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, So PauloCambridge University PressThe Edinburgh Building, Cambridge cn: :iu, United KingdomFirst published in print format isbn-13 978-0-521-79038-3 hardbackisbn-13 978-0-511-06710-5 eBook (NetLibrary) Cambridge University Press 20032003Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521790383This book is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provision ofrelevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take placewithout the written permission of Cambridge University Press.isbn-10 0-511-06710-0 eBook (NetLibrary)isbn-10 0-521-79038-7 hardbackCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy ofuiis for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this book, and does notguarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.Published in the United States of America by Cambridge University Press, New Yorkwww.cambridge.orgisnw-:,isnw-:cisnw-:,isnw-:cc,;,ContentsContributors page vii1 Introduction 1Brian Jacobs and Patrick Kain2 Historical Notes and Interpretive Questions aboutKants Lectures on Anthropology 15Werner Stark3 Kant and the Problem of Human Nature 38Allen W. Wood4 The Second Part of Morals 60Robert B. Louden5 The Guiding Idea of Kants Anthropology andthe Vocation of the Human Being 85Reinhard Brandt6 Kantian Character and the Problem of a Scienceof Humanity 105Brian Jacobs7 Beauty, Freedom, and Morality: Kants Lectureson Anthropology and the Development of HisAesthetic Theory 135Paul Guyer8 Kants Apology for Sensibility 164Howard Caygillvvi Contents9 Kants True Economy of Human Nature: Rousseau,Count Verri, and the Problem of Happiness 194Susan Meld Shell10 Prudential Reason in Kants Anthropology 230Patrick KainContributorsREINHARD BRANDT is Professor of Philosophy at Philipps-Universit at, Marburg, and founding director of the MarburgerKant-Archiv. He is co-editor of Kants gesammelte Schriften, vols. 25(Vorlesungen uber Anthropologie [1997]) and 26 (Vorlesungen uberphysische Geography [forthcoming]). He is also a general editor andcontributor to the series Kant-Forschungen. His recent books includeKritischer Kommentar zu Kants Anthropologie in pragmatischer Hinsicht(1798) (1999), DArtagnan und die Urteilstafel. Uber ein Ordnungsprinzipder europ aischen Kulturgeschichte 1, 2, 3/4 (1991), and Zu Kants politischerPhilosophie (1997).HOWARD CAYGILL is Professor of Cultural History at GoldsmithsCollege, University of London. He is the author of Art of Judgement(1989), The Kant Dictionary (1995), and Walter Benjamin: The Colour ofExperience (1998).PAUL GUYERis Florence R. C. Murray Professor inthe Humanities atthe University of Pennsylvania. He is a General Editor of The CambridgeEdition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. His publications include Kant onFreedom, Law, and Happiness (2000), Kant and the Experience of Freedom(1993), Kant and the Claims of Knowledge (1987), andKant and the Claimsof Taste (1979). He is also editor of Kants Groundwork of the Metaphysicsof Morals: Critical Essays (1998), The Critique of Pure Reason (1997), andThe Cambridge Companion to Kant (1992).viiviii ContributorsBRIAN JACOBS held the positions of Visiting Fellow and VisitingAssistant Professor at Cornell University, where he also received hisPh.D. His publications include Dialogical Rationality andthe Critiqueof Absolute Autonomy (2001) and Self-incurrence, Incapacity, andGuilt: Kant and Hamann on Enlightenment Guardianship (1997).He is also translating the Mrongovius anthropology lecture for TheCambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant and is working on abook, Self-Determination and Mutual Recognition: Negotiating Autonomyfrom Kant to Habermas.PATRICK KAIN is Assistant Professor of Philosophy at Purdue Uni-versity. He earned his Ph.D. at the University of Notre Dame and wasFulbright Graduate Fellow at Eberhard-Karls Universit at, T ubingen.His articles include A Preliminary Defense of Kantian Prudence(2001) and Kants Moral Constructivism and His Conception ofLegislation (1999).ROBERT B. LOUDEN is Professor of Philosophy at the Universityof Southern Maine. He is author of Kants Impure Ethics: From RationalBeings to Human Beings (2000) and Morality and Moral Theory: A Reap-praisal and Reafrmation (1992) and a co-editor of the anthology TheGreeks and Us (1996). He is alsoco-editor andco-translator of Lectures onAnthropology and Anthropology, History, and Education for The CambridgeEdition of the Works of Immanuel Kant.SUSAN MELD SHELL is Professor of Political Science at Boston Col-lege. She is author of The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Generation,Spirit, and Community (1996) and The Rights of Reason: A Study of KantsPhilosophy and Politics (1980).WERNER STARK is Honorarprofessor at Philipps-Universit at, Mar-burg, and wissenschaftlicher Angestellter, Berlin-BrandenburgischeAkademie der Wissenschaften: Arbeitsstelle Kant-Ausgabe, Potsdam.He is co-editor of Kants gesammelte Schriften, vols. 25 (Vorlesungen uber Anthropologie [1997]) and 26 (Vorlesungen uber physischeGeographie [forthcoming]). He is also author of Nachforschungen zuBriefen und Handschriften Immanuel Kants (1993) and a general editorand contributor to the series Kant-Forschungen.ALLEN W. WOOD is Ward W. and Priscilla B. Woods Professorof Philosophy at Stanford University. He is a General Editor of TheContributors ixCambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant. His publications includeKants Ethical Thought (1999), Hegels Ethical Thought (1990), KantsRational Theology (1978), and Kants Moral Religion (1970). He has alsoserved as co-editor and translator of the recent volumes The Critique ofPure Reason (1997) and Religion and Rational Theology (1996) for TheCambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant.Essays on Kants Anthropology1IntroductionBrian Jacobs and Patrick KainNo other issue in Kants thought is as pervasive and persistent as thatof human nature. Posed as the peculiarly Kantian question, what isthe human being? (Was ist der Mensch?)1, this may be the sole con-cern that appears consistently from Kants earliest writings throughthe last. In Kants lectures on logic, metaphysics, ethics, and educa-tion it is difcult to nd a text completely free of anthropologicalobservation. Reaching far beyond considerations of ethics and history,moreover, the question of human nature is also present in Kants mostscientic reections. In the conclusion of Universal Natural Historyand Theory of the Heavens from 1755, a text principally dedicated toapplying Newtons theory of attraction and repulsion toward under-standing the emergence of the heavens, Kant closes withthis comment:It is not evenproperly knowntous what the humanbeing truly is now, althoughconsciousness and the senses ought to instruct us of this; how much less will webe able to guess what he one day ought to become. Nevertheless, the humansouls desire for knowledge (Wibegierde) snaps very desirously (begierig) at thisobject that lies so far from it and strives, in such obscure knowledge, to shedsome light.2The critical project that would take shape some twenty years lateris partly an extension of this very concern. It is the peculiar fate ofhuman reason, the way its aspirations and interests outstrip its pow-ers, which motivates the famous critique of traditional metaphysicsfound in the Critique of Pure Reason.3Moreover, one of Kants more12 Brian Jacobs and Patrick Kainspecic concerns in that work involved the status of human naturein relation to the emerging human sciences. In the eighteenth cen-tury, natural history borrowed experimental and taxonomic methodsfrom the physical sciences of the previous century, methods that hadlittle use for notions of the soul or for any substance other thana material one.4Like many of his time, Kant believed that this ap-proach posed a challenge to humanitys unique place in the cosmos,threatening to leave humanity undifferentiated among the world ofbeings. Kant concluded that a solut