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Semiconductor Optical AmplifiersThis page intentionally left blank This page intentionally left blankNE W J E RSE Y L ONDON SI NGAP ORE BEI JI NG SHANGHAI HONG KONG TAI P E I CHE NNAI World ScientifcSemiconductor Optical Amplifiers Niloy K Dutta & Qiang WangUniversity of Connecticut, USABritish Library Cataloguing-in-Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.For photocopying of material in this volume, please pay a copying fee through the CopyrightClearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, USA. In this case permission tophotocopy is not required from the publisher.ISBN 981-256-397-0Typeset by Stallion PressEmail: enquiries@stallionpress.comAll rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, may not be reproduced in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage and retrievalsystem now known or to be invented, without written permission from the Publisher.Copyright 2006 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.Published byWorld Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.5 Toh Tuck Link, Singapore 596224USA office: 27 Warren Street, Suite 401-402, Hackensack, NJ 07601UK office: 57 Shelton Street, Covent Garden, London WC2H 9HEPrinted in Singapore.SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIERSCheeHok - Semiconductor.pmd 11/27/2006, 1:08 PM 1January 2, 2006 9:20 SPI-B340: Semiconductor Optical Ampliers (Ed: Chee Hock) fmContentsPreface ixAuthors Biographies xi1. Introduction 11.1 Historical Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Semiconductor Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Operating Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61.4 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.5 Book Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.6 Future Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111.7 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112. Basic Concepts 152.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 Optical Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.3 Dielectric Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.4 Condition for Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.5 P-N Junction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.6 Amplier Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262.7 Multiquantum Well Ampliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323. Recombination Mechanisms and Gain 353.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.2 Radiative Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363.3 Nonradiative Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44vFAJanuary 2, 2006 9:20 SPI-B340: Semiconductor Optical Ampliers (Ed: Chee Hock) fmvi Contents3.4 Quantum Well Ampliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 583.5 Gain in Quantum Wire (QWR) andQuantum Dot (QD) Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 764. Epitaxial Growth and Amplier Designs 814.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 814.2 Material Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 824.3 Epitaxial Growth Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 854.4 Strained Layer Epitaxy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894.5 Selective Area Growth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914.6 Amplier Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 964.7 Growth of QWR and QD Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1014.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1065. Low Reectivity Facet Designs 1115.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1115.2 Low Reectivity Coatings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1135.3 Buried Facet Ampliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1155.4 Tilted Facet Ampliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1185.5 Amplied Spontaneous Emission and Optical Gain . . . . . 1225.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1266. Amplier Rate Equations and Operating Characteristics 1296.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1296.2 Amplier Rate Equations for Pulse Propagation . . . . . . 1306.3 Pulse Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1336.4 Multichannel Amplication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1366.5 Amplier Application in Optical Transmission Systems . . . 1396.6 Amplier Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1486.7 Gain Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1566.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1697. Photonic Integrated Circuit Using Ampliers 1737.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1737.2 Integrated Laser and Amplier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1747.3 Multichannel WDM Sources with Ampliers . . . . . . . . . 1767.4 Spot Size Conversion (SSC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177FAJanuary 2, 2006 9:20 SPI-B340: Semiconductor Optical Ampliers (Ed: Chee Hock) fmContents vii7.5 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1787.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1818. Functional Properties and Applications 1838.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838.2 Four-Wave Mixing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1838.3 Cross Gain Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1978.4 Cross Phase Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2038.5 Wavelength Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2058.6 Optical Demultiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2088.7 OTDM System Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2128.8 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2189. Optical Logic Operations 2219.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2219.2 Optical Logic XOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2219.3 Optical Logic OR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2439.4 Optical Logic AND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2509.5 Optical Logic INVERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2579.6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25910. Optical Logic Circuits 26310.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26310.2 Adder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26310.3 Parity Checker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26810.4 All-Optical Pseud

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