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2. iiI-AfVISUAL DICTIONARY OFJ ARCH ITECTU RE J I I I I I I I I FRANCIS D.K. CHING A VNR BOOK JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC NEW YORK CHICHESTER WEINHEIM BRISBANE SINGAPORE TORONTO 3. ! I .-" I A VISUALDICT-IONARY OF ARCHITECTURE f { - Ir It... _.-l- I. f . - I I ~ , ; ,~ 1 l...~( t- )l . ; ~ I!Ill.i..-rAlZ~H)FRANCIS D.K. CHINGfER~ANr7~l 4. This book is printed on acidfree paper. 8CopYright @1995 ry John Wiley &Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.Published simultaneou5~ in Canada.No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in arryform or by arTy means, electronic, mechanical, photocop-yinq, recording, scanning or otherwise,except as ~rmitteJ under Sectionsl(J7 or 108 of the 1976 United States CoPJlight Act, withouteither the prior written pemission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of theappropr~ per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Cenw, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvere, MA01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 750-4744. RequesUi to the Publisha for pennisslon shouldbe add~ to the fenni55loos Department, John M.~ & Sons, Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, NewYork, NY 1015U012, (212) 850-6011, fax (212) 850-6008, E-Mail: PERMREQ@W1lEY.COM.This publication is designed to proMe accurate and authoritative information in regard to thesubject matter covered. It is sold with the underetanding that the publisher is not enqaged Inrende:ing professiot131 servius. If professional adviCt or other expert assist...anu is required, theservices of a competent professional person should be oought.U~ralj of Congre% Cataloging-irHuuncatlon Data:ISBN 0-471-28451-3Printed in ~e United S~ of America.20191817 16 15 1413 12L:LL 5. (ONTENTSPREFACE 7ARCHITECTURE9 FORCE 96PLASTIC 192ARCH 12 FORTIFICATION 98PLATE 194BEAM 15 FOUNDATION 100PLUMBING 196BRICI< 18 FRAME 104 REINFORCED CONCRETE 202BUILDING 21 GEOMETRY 108ROOF 208CABLE STRUcnJRE 28GLASS 112 ROOM 216CEILING 30HARDWARE 114SHEll 219CERAMIC 32HEAT 117 . SITEWORK 221CHURCH 35 HISTORY 128 SOIL 224COLOR 38HOUSE 136 SOLAR ENERGY 226COLUMN 40 JOINERY 140 SOUND 228CONCRETE 42 LIGHT 142 STAIR 233CONSTRUCTION 48 LOAD 151STONE 236DESIGN 52 MASONRY 155 -STRUCTURE 238~DOME 60 MATERIAL 161SURVEY 246DOOR 62 MEASURE 166 TEMPLE 248DRAWING 66MEMBRANE 168THEATER 256ELECTRICITY 74METAL 16? TRUSS 259ELEVATOR 80 MOISTURE CONTROL 176VAULT 262.FASTENING 82ORDER 179 VISION 264FIREPLACE 87ORNAMENT 182WAll 266FIRE SAFETY 88PAINT 187 WINDOW 271flOOR 92PLASTER 188 WOOD 276INDEX 285 6. PREFACE , ill. tjC~/~_._-, . "" f--m.,/~r~r=1.=0_. _ _ _ _ ~". ; ... >+-,- ",: . -4- . - .. - ; r - . . :...- ")I One picture is Just as a single image can be worth a The reader may use this dctionary in aIncluded are fundamental termsworth a thousandthousand words, a single word can number ofw3js.lf one trows the exact relating to architectural deSign, wordsconjure up in the minds eye aterm and wants to find CiJt rts history, and technology. Sincethousand images. Regardless of t.he meaning, then one can 1001: it up in thearchitectcre is a visual art, most ofpower of a solitary word or image,index. Looki~ up one term will always the entries naturally lend .themselveshowever, each communicates meaningpresent related terms arTa:1ged to graphic representation. Some aremore effectively when brought around one or more illustn In the production of what Is beautiful appeallng. or of more than ordill3l) slgnlflcanu. aesthetics The branch of philosophy that deals with the nature of art. beauty. ana tJste. with a view to estabhshlng the meaning and valiatty of clitlcalJudgments conceming wori::s of art. Also. esthetics. beauty delightThe aggregate of qualities In a person or A high degree of pleasure orthing that gives Intense pleasure to theenjoyment.i Jsenses or deep satlsfactlon to ~ mind orspirit. whether arising from harmony offonn or color. excellence of craft.trutirfulness. originality. or other. oftenunspeGlfIal7!e property.tasteCriticalJudgment. discernment. orappreciatlon of what Is fitting. harmonious.or beautiful prevailing in a culture or upersonal to an Il1n---:intrados-.l.. Ill(; .. ", Thelnnercurveorsurfaceof":1J~ht5pn.f t M ! f ! - - - - - - - - - ~-the The first voussoir resting on Impost the sprlMIMtI line to the ..., ...,formln~~Leco ncave uUClersouc_ ..., VII _J 11 M==a=na=rch==_==================~===~ ______ . _____ .~h,_s_t~I~_of_~h_e_In_Ua_d_OS_~~~~========================== __I 5pring The point at which an arch. VJu~. or dome rises from Its support. Also CJi!ed1springl~.~croWn - " - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,.----------.------..:.. spandrel-The- highest J"Ir1 or point of a The triangular-shaped. sometin-.es I cormx ccnst:ructlon. as anarcn. ornamented area 17etween the ~.ndos of I vault.or~_two adjoining arches. or ~ ~~ left! or right extrados of an arch .rJ t.:...tLJt-~-~~------------~- of an arch curving down rect3 ng ular fra mewon: su rroundi rI.,1 It. Also~Sp2ndril.i from the crown to the Impost.~----~-E:1Tr.e uppermost part of an4IPutrnent. often In the form of a !7Iock. capfbl. or molding. from which OIn arch springs. I uIjII.I: L.:; L1;or~~l------------------~ r.g lj ArrJ several concentric ring s ofAcrosspleu connectlng the I".l>s in 3LIforming an arch. esp. when e3ch Dro1~.~~~[~, ,-U-l.J"-pCjond the o:.e pelcw. centering. Also called folster. f,-I! L>.~.-.~-.r lJUVUrt;h I An archway having sides or Jam~s not at ~enur!ng L A temForal) fl7lmework for supportln~ a .. - :~ right angles with the face of Its abutments_ma son I) arch or vault during construction until the work can suppo~ Itself. L camber piece Aroard used as centulng for a flat arch. ~( slightly crowned ~ allow for settling ofIIj ffilllI{/ the arch. Also calle4C.1l)1per 51ip.__ L12 L 12. l ARCHrIlr,...--------------+-arch actionI The manner In whlcn an arch transforms the vertlca I forces of a su pported load Into Inclined components aria transmits them to abutments on either side of the archway.r--~-------+- ~rchaxis the median line of an arched structure. .---------J-..~line of thrust; .f"I, The setofresultantsbf thrust and weightfeach part of an arch Imposes 01 the nextflower one. For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch. the line of thrust must - coincide with the arch axis.I Junic~lar .1rc_h IAn .rch shapeJ to develop only axialcompression und~r a given loading. Thissh3palJ1nq. L At th~ nelltra/axls of the section. only shar stresses exist and these can ~ rcscI~eJ InW ta7sJ1~ ;mil compre55le ~ses xtJn~ at 45"Jmgfe.s to the neutnl1Xl5, For 217 lrrU:rrnedim element sut;ect to botb be:nJlng x.J she3r 5tre55eS. the prlnctp.al stresses h3re 3n InclinztJcn ktemI/neJ by the rd3t1r~ magnitudes ofth~ 5tre55e5. L,tress trajectorieslines depictIng the direction put not themagnitude of the principal stresses In aII~- tension L~eam. J - 5hear ceoUr T~~p~-~nal~Ia_~9f.a L s~l~~gIfWfiICfii? -,- , transverselOad;r-ust pa55 In orJe~ tor prevent torsion or twlstlng.of the mem~er a~out.aIongltudlnal axis. I L16 16. BEAMrlf 5imple beam A ~m restlC3 0.1i sim~~~u.ffljs at Dot.~-.-t."LtlU 1 +J.1J.Ltends, which are free tc rota~ and have no moment reslst4nce. As with any st.otlwflyf . I .:: t; : aetennlnate structure, the v-alues of anIII !r !( III. . ). ~III.~treactions, shears. and moments for a simple beam are Independent of Its Crc5S ,heard.g .. m111.11111111 . !:; iil:1 I, sectional shape and ma~31. A graphic representation of the variation In ~:. ,I!rmagnitude of the external shears present In... .. I!ia structure for a given set of transverse loads anel support con.:fitlons. Concentrated loads produce e~ma( she~- - cantilever beam Uniformly distribtJud loads produce (ine3ri) :.": Xpro~rij veat:ns,u pPPfted. a~ only.one momentdi.1gram _ _ _ _ _ _~~~~~.~!~CQn-~m.g.wJ-~ ~~~: ;;;~~ :.,,. r, "",,r A3EIC:~torrott~~nJn:. :: : :-~:~~!-W,f~~jj,!!e.:. :;rfFI : louis and support conditions. The overallConcentr.lted loads produce bending mom~ts Uniformly distribrMd loads producei tkf1ected shape of a structure subject to which vary hne;;rfy between loads. panbciJc311y var:lr.~ moments.Pendlng can often lie Inferred from the shape of its moment diagram.cantilever ;~~~~~~~~~=:~~~~~~~~~~~=t overhanging peam A slmple Deam extending beyond one its supports. The overhang reduces the~i6 posltlve moment at mldspan while rpositive shear - .. developing a n~3t!ve moment at the Inse ..P,,~~.t.. ,.res~l?nt. of.shearforceSth3tacts .r vertIca~ upW1rd~n the left part of theof the cantliever over the support. Jstructure !:>errig consldered. Assuming 3 lJI1/formly dTstrWvW (03d, tJ;e projection for wltfch the morrr~ OY~ thenegativeshear ----------------~ 5I.:pport Is eqwf ind opposlU ta the morr.t:rt~ ~ A~."r:esutta nt. of.5 hearforcesthatact5 ... 3t midspan is approxlmMy% of the Sf!41."ertIC3l!:t ~~rapn the left part of theI structUrl: ~elrigconsldered. ~---:",""r-T--,.-,-.,."-l...1fJ-l-L-L...LL.....w.-l...L.L....w..::...positive moment~.~.~._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- " -_ _-.c.,....A !:>ending mending s~s,lncre-ase the rlgldlty of the ~m. and ~uu Itsto the moment and shear values whk;h maxlmum defIect1on.5upended-spantypically vary along Its Iongttudlnalaxls. ~ ~AsImple ~m supporW by thecantlievers of two adjolnln~ spans withpInneJ constructlonJolnts at polnts ofzero moment. Also calW hu~-span.[Y1J_ ccrttinuou5 pe4m_~ be3m extettding~~t~~ih",,~J~, .. ~~Jn ordu to aevelOp greater rlgfdttyaiid smaller moments than a ser~s of simple lleams having similar spans and loading. Both fIXed-end and contJnuous !:>eams are Inktamlnate structures for which the values of all reactions. shears. and mo~nts are dependent not only or. span and Ioaalng but also on cross- sectlonal Sh3F~ 31d material. effective length The dist3~ce Det ..... een Inflection points In the sp3~;f a flxedend or continuous beJ~. quiIl3ie.-: in nature to the actualleng~h ~ 3simp!] s~pported eam. 17 17. ,lJJ.Sl.(WA m3SOf1f)unitofclay, formed into