AS Level History - Henry VII and Henry VIII Flashcards

Download AS Level History - Henry VII and Henry VIII Flashcards

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PowerPoint PresentationThe government of EnglandThe personality of the king was very important; he made all decisions.The royal household looked after the domestic needs of the king.The court moved with the king, entertained and tried to influence him.Law and Order in the localities was maintained by justices of peace.Parliament was not a regular feature of government, but called when the kind needed money.The king relied on nobles for advice and along with senior churchmen made up the Privy Council.The War of the RosesEngland had been unstable since 1399 with the throne regularly changing hands.These wars began in 1455 and lasted until 1485/7.They were fought between two families who had claims to the throne of England; the Yorkists and Lancastrians.The struggle started because of instability; Henry VI was a weak king and the nobles were powerful.Monarchy in EnglandThe throne had changed hands regularly since 1399Richard III usurped the throne in 1483 on the death of Edward IV.Richard may have murdered his nephews, the sons of Edward IV.The Buckingham Rebellion attempted to remove Richard before Henry Tudors invasion.Henry TudorHad a weak claim to the throne of EnglandHad been in exile in France for 14 yearsHe hardly knew EnglandHis invasion was aided by FrenchEnglands position in Europe Had lost lands in France throughout the fifteenth centuryStill ruled over Calais Main threat was France as the most powerful nation in Europe.The Netherlands was important to England because of the cloth tradeWhy was there so much unrest in the early years of Henrys ruleAlthough Henry Tudor won the battle of Bosworth it does not mean that he had the support of the country.Henrys claim to the throne was also very weak, being largely through his mother, Maragret Beaufort.Henry recognised his weak position and quickly took action to secure his position. One of his first acts was to date the start of his reign from the day before Bosworth; this meant that any who fought against him were traitors and could have their estates seized.Henry arranged his coronation for 30th October which was before Parliament met, so no one could claimed he was only king because of Parliament.Henry asked for Papal dispensation to allow him to marry Elizabeth of York, a distant cousin, and unite the houses of Lancaster and York. The marriage took place in January 1486 so that it could not be claimed that he owed the crown to his wife.The most important of the Yorkist claimants were two of Richardss nephews, Edward, Earl of Warwick and John De La Pole, Earl of Lincoln. Warwick was successfully removed by being sent to the tower, but Lincoln professed his loyalty and was invited to join the Kings council.The Earl of Surrey was kept in prison until 1489, but the duke of Northumberland was released at the end of 1485.Despite these actions, there were still other Yorkists who did not accept Henry as king and were willing to challenge his position.Lovell ConspiracyHenry faced rebellion within a year of taking the throne.There was trouble in the midlands, north and wales as Henry embarked on a royal progress to the north where Yorkist support was strong.The unrest came from dissatisfied Yorkists who had supported Richard. The rebellion in the midlands and north involved Lord Lovell and the Stafford brothers, all of whom were once loyal to Richard.The plan failed because Henry heard about the plot and sent an armed force to offer the rebels a choice of pardoning or excommunication and death. The rebels dispersed.The Yorkshire RebellionThe Yorkshire rebellion was the result of Henrys attempts to raise money to aid Brittany in its struggle against France.Parliament had granted Henry a subsidy of 100,000, very little was actually raised.Suffered from bad harvests in 1488.Despite the complaints, Henry refused to negotiate, but when the Earl of Northumberland tried to collect the tax he was murdered.Some evidence that the unrest was orchestrated by the Yorkists. Led by Sir John Egremont, a Yorkist supporter and illegitimate member of the percy family.Although the rising was easily crushed by a royal army, the money was not collected.This was recognised by Henry as he appointed the Earl of Surrey as his representative on the north, a man with no vested interest there and whose loyalty was secure because the restoration of his own estates depended upon his success in the region.The Cornish RebellionThe Cornish rising of 1497 was more serious.Caused by Henrys need for money and subsequent parliamentary vote. This time the threat was from Scotland as James IV sought to aid Perkin Warbeck and invade the north of England.Saw little reason why they should pay taxes to fund a war on Englands northern border.The rebels assembled at the Cornish country town of Bodmin in May 1497and their numbers swelled as they marched through the county.Attracted little support through Devon.The rebellion attracted 15,000 supportersNumbers did decline as the rebels approached London.The rebels made it clear that their complaints were against evil councillors rather than the king.Henry raised army 25,000 to rush them in Blackheath June 1497Henrys actions show that he was not prepared to get them a second chance.Cornish rebellion suggested twelve years into reign, and still lack of support.How serious a threat was the Yorkist challengeSerious because Margaret of Burgandy, Edward IVs sister offered safe haven for Yorkist exiles and was willing to fund other enterprises and provide whatever rebels needed.How successfully did Henry deal with the Simnel rebellionSimnel claimed to be the earl of WarwickCame a year of Henry claiming the throne making it a serious matterHe raised support quickly in the Yorkist stronghold of Oxford and then IrelandReceived support from Margaret of Burgandy who went money and 2000 soldiersConspiracy began in autumn 1486, henry was not aware until early 1487Henry offered rebels a pardon and paraded the real earl of Warwick through London, but did not stop the rebellionBecame more serious in june when rebels landed in Lancashire and began to march south, it failed to gain support but numbered 8000 menMost were bored of chaos after war of roses and did not joinFaced henry in june 1487 at stoke, and henry won.Could have just as easily been reversedHow great a problem was the nobility?Henry was a usurper and there was nothing preventing a powerful noble from attempting to overthow him.Many nobles still owned a lot of land. EG. Duke or Norfolk, Earl of NorthumberlandLand = Power. Henry needed to control this powerHe needed their help to govern and control as nobles had armies of men and support of local populations Could also provide leadership for rebellion which he didnt want, needed them on his side.How effective were Henrys Henry did make the task of controlling the nobility by:Limiting the amount he made noblesOnly 3 new earls compared to 9 under Edward IVCarrot and Stick method. In the past monarchs rewarded nobles with land, but this diminished the crowns power. Henry abandoned the system and re-established Order of the Garter.37 Knights of the Garter, this was seen as a great honour. Eg. Lord Daubeney was given a knighthood due to his fight against Cornish rebels.Kings council or Great councilGreat council was a clever way to ensure noble support.Attainders and Bonds and Recognisance.Acts of Attainder were damaging to families as they lost the right to possess their land, which spelt social economic ruin.Henry passed nine attainders against nobles, reversed five.Attainders was effective because good behaviour could result in their reversal and therefore encouraged loyalty as those attained sought to reverse their social and economic decline. Bonds and recognisancesThese were written agreements where nobles offended the king to either pay for their offence or pay money as security for future good behaviour.Sums involved 10,000 for the Marquess of DorsetBetween 1485 and 1509, 36 out of 62 noble families were involved in the agreements.Retainders were seen as a threat by Henry. Although he did not intend to abolish retaining, 1485 Henry made Lords and Commons swear not to retain illegally. This stopped them from getting big armies.The penalties were severe, with a fine of 5 per month for each illegal retainer.When applied to Lord Burgavenny in 1506, it cost him over 70,000Henry also asserted power by insisting on his feudal rights:Marriage: the king exploited it so profit from arranged marriages of heirs.Wardship: the estates of minors were placed under royal control until the minor came of age, but in the meantime the estate was exploited to maximise the income for the crownRelief: this was a payment to the king when land was inheritedLivery: this was a payment to the king to recover land from wardshipRegaining of former crown lands from nobles.1489 Act of Resumption, which recovered land granted away since before the wars of the roses.As a result of this policy Steven Gunn has estimated that the crown had five times more land by the end of Henry VIIs reign than Henry VI.Henry TudorHad a weak claim to the throne of EnglandHad been in exile in France for 14 yearsHe hardly knew EnglandHis invasion was aided by FrenchEnglands position in Europe Had lost lands in France throughout the fifteenth centuryStill ruled over Calais Main threat was France as the most powerful nation in Europe.The Netherlands was important to England because of the cloth tradeHow far did Henry change central governmentNeeded advisors Kings council.The council was chosen by the king and although there were over 200 councillers during the reign, meetings were attended by smaller number.Made up of Lord Chancellor, Morton, the lord privy seal, fox and lord treasurer. Court of Requets, Court of General surveyors and the council learned in the law.One change was made that Henry did not rely on rich families and instead chose people of actual intelligence like landowners. He needed experts.How did Henry restore royal authority?Government was upheld in the outlying regions of the country.Developed the Yorkist use of regional councils in the north, wales and Ireland.Appointed Earl of Surrey as deputy in the north, with responsibility to defend the northern border, but also had power to enforce laws.Made sure council members were appointed by him, not surrey, allowing loyalty.Henry revived council of wales in 1493 under the ruling of his son Arthur. This increased control.Direct English control in Ireland was limited due to the pale, a section of Ireland under ruling of wealthy irish families.He was forced to rely on the families, with the Earl of Kildare restored as Deputy.How effective was local govt.Reliance on wealthy families had given them lots of power.Henry developed the office of Justice and Peace. This system was used before but used to be under influence of larger magantes but bonds and allowed nobles to be noble for free.Roles of JPs was:Implementing social and economic statuses Dispensing justice and trying criminal offencesUpholding public orderReplacing suspect members of juriesAxting in cases of non-capital offences without a juryRewarding informersArresting and questioning poachersEmpowered to grant bailAs a result, Henry was heavily dependent upon goodwill to ensure justice was implemented.ParliamentThe king could summon, dissolve and prorogue it when he wished.It was called when king wanted to pass new law or needed funding.Parliament was called seven times during henrys reign.It was used to pass Acts of attainder against nobles, to uphold henrys claim to the throne and to define JPs.Henry avoided war as much as possible, so was not used for that reason like in the past/future.Henrys major concern had been to restore law and order as this would bring stability.Changing of financial administrationUse of chamber system, so that by 1490s it had returned to its central role of managing:Crown landsFeudal duesProfits from justiceThe French pensionAs a result of these developments Henry had much closer control of financesHow successfully did Henry exploit his financial resourcesKings had ordinary and extraordinary revenue has sources of income.Ordinary income came from crown lands, customs and profits etc. Extraordinary revenue was not regular and was usually raised only in need from taxation, or in times of emergency and borrowingOrdinary revenueMost important of ordinary revenue came from crown lands.Increaed the amount of land the crown owned.Fives times larger at the end of his reign than Henry VI.1486 act of resumption and seizure of land.Crown lands rose from 29,000 on the death of Richard to 42,000 by 1509.Extraordinary revenueCame from parliamentary taxation.Determined to increase income he did not misuse this source.Rebellions showed how unpopular taxation was and therefore was cautious to raise it.Asked for money from parliament in extreme circumstances.Henry never successfully tapped the wealth of the country.Benevolences were slightly different as these were forced loans where there was no repayment. On these occasions subjects were asked to help the king as a sign of their support.Used in 1491 to raise money for expedition to france, bringing in 48,000.The church would often make a contribution. Gave 25,000 towards expedition to france. Henry would sometimes take church money by force, selling church offices.Brittany and FranceHenry Vii did have some support on the continent.Duchy of Brittany provided Henry with refuge when he fled England 1471.Important area for Henry, not only did france want to incorporate the duchy into the kingdom, it would also have meant that all the channel coast was in the hands of the FrenchFrance had largest and most professional army in EU.Was financially stronger than England.Traditional enemy following 100 years war.France was allies with ScotlandScotlandHad a smaller population and financial income than England.Alliance with france meant England was weak on both sides.Raids across border were common and forced England to keep expensive border control/military basesSpainWas the new makor superpower in Europe. Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile had brought together their two kingdoms and turned them into an international power.Spain was more likely to come into conflict with france than England and mighr even see England as an ally against French.BurgundyMargaret, sister of Edward IV, had offered base for Yorkist claimants to the throne and their supporters. This was a direct threat to Henry but because of the importance of the cloth trade it made action more complicated.Holy Roman EmpireCovered much of central Europe, or modern day Germany, but was composed of a number of different states. Appeared big and strong but its power was limited.Maximillion (1493-1519) did much to strengthen it. The empire had acquired Burgundy in 1477 when Max married Mary of Burgundy and therefore it had taken on a greater importance in terms of its relationship with England.ItalyDid not exist as a country but was a collection of states.All had claims to land there and it was the outbreak of the Italian wars in 1494 thats diverted European attention away from northern Europe to the Mediterranean and made henrys postion less vulnerable.What were Henrys aimsHis weakness at the start of his reign was made more acute because of his financial position and this encouraged henry to adopt a more defensive foreign policy than his predecessors, and avoid war if at all possible. This approach allowed him to protect the kingdom from invasion with more funding.Threat of invasionThreat of invasion from englands traditional enemies of france and Scotland. These two countries could exploit henrys weak position in order to launch attacks on England northern or southern borders.Dynastic threatsClaim to English throne was weak. Seen as usurperFaced challenge from within England and also in Europe.Margaret of Burgundy tried to restore Yorkist line to the throne. Hnery wanted to improve relations with the major powers and gain allies to discourage attacksOne of his methods was to use marriage alliances (married off his children).Weak financial position and its impactWar was very costly, and while the royal coffers lacked funds, henry sought to avoid conflict whenever possible.Wanted to avoid war with france, due to it being more financially stableEconomic goalsWanted to increase revenue and trade with other countriesWanted to maintain cloth trade with Burgundy and develop closer trading relations with other nations such as SpainHenry suspended cloth trade due to Burgundy supporting WarbeckThree phases of Economic policy1485-92 a period when henry followed a policy of diplomacy to secure the throne.1493-1502 a period when peace with Scotland was eventually secured and henrys position appeared stronger and policy more successful1503-09 a period when henrys position weakened and he ultimately became How successful was henry and his aimsSuccessful in achieving support abroad.France supported henrys seizure of the throne in 1485 and initiated a one year truce with was later extended to 1485.Created commercial treaty with Brittany.Henry also secured relations with Scotland (signed three year truce in 1486)In 1487 Max, heir to roman empire, renewed treaty for one year. Henry became confident countries would not assist rival claimants. How effective was Henrys handling of the Breton CrisisIt was the situation in Birttany that changed Englands peaceful relationsIn order to bring Brittany into the French kingdom, the regent of france proposed to marry her brother, Charles viii, to the daughter of duke of Brittany in 1488.Maximillion had already arranged this daughter.French sent a force into burgundy in 1488This provoked Max, and Ferdinand of Aragon, who sent troops to Brittany.Duke of Brittany asked England for help.Bretons refused to negotiate and were then defeated by a French army.Death of the duke of Brittanny meant that his daughter, Anne, became ruler and the French then seized her.Henry renewed an old treaty with Max, followed by Treaty of Redon with Brittany in Feb 1489. Henry agreed to send 6000 troops paid for by Britons.In July 1489 max made peace with france and spain then also made peace.In December 1491 Brittany accepeted the defeat and Anne of Brittany was married to Charlies VIII of france.Henrys invasion of France 1492Henry raised a lot of money to fund the war so needed to retain credibility.Lengthy war with france would be costly and make henry vulnerable.He announced intention to assert claim to French throne, and a year later he crossed the channel in 1492.By time the force arrived, the campaigning season was over, and any conflict would be short. French king was more interested in invading Italy and did not wanted English troops on French soil.Charlies offered Henry peace on 3rd November in the form of Treaty of Estaples:Give no aid to English rebelsPay the arrears of the treaty of picquigneyPay most f henrys expenses in BrittanyAnnual pension for Henry approximately 5000 per year.Henrys policies towards France period after Treat of EstaplesLeague of venice was established in 1495 with aim of driving france out of Italy.When league was revamoed in 1496 as holy league, England was invited to join.Ferdinand of Aragon didnt want the English to ally the French, showing englands important.At the same time, henry also secured a trade agreement with france, but did not lose friendship with the league.Henry tried to create a three-way agreement in England, French and Netherlands.Change in the European diplomatic situation ended Henrys hopes of an anti-spanish agreement. When the new agreement was signed the league that it established was anti-venice and not antispain, as henry had wanted.England was isolated, not invited to join new league. (Members still supported henry and did not threaten him).Avoiding conflict with ScotlandEdward IV seized towns of Berwick and Dunbar which scots were determined to win back.Support from france for Scotland was vital because Scotland was financially weaker than England.Three year truce was signed in July 1486Regents ruling Scotland were less friendly. Henrys support for Brittany saw French/Scottish relations tighten.Henry gave shelter to those Scottish nobles who had been ousted from power and in 1492 aided the successful attempts to overthrow anti-english regentsJames IV then came of age in 1495 and wanted to assert power over England in the form of war, aided by warbeck in July 1495Invasion failed with no support from England.James was worried parliament had voted to find for attack on Scotland. To get in English good books, James did not support Cornish rebellion.Henry offered treaty terms in truce of ayton signed in 1497 and warbeck was executed.The peace of ayton extended the earlier truce wnd was reinforced by the marriage of Henrys eldest daughter, Margaret, to James IV in August 1503Did not live up to name Treaty of Perpectual peaceHenrys pursue on consistent foreign policy with Spain and Burgundy Both nations had common enemy in france1488, henry suggested a spain/English marriage between Arthur and Catherine of AragonNegotiations were slow as both nations wanted the most favourable agreementIn March 1489 the Treat of Medina del campo was signed, agreeing:Arthur and Catherine would marryCatherines dowry would be 40,000Spain would not help English rebelsBenefits of tradeAgreement to help each other if war with france broke outSpain offered to help England regain Normandy and Aquitaine.Final marriage agreement with Spain was not made until 1496Spain was worried about sending Catherine while Henrys position was unstableSuggestion that Catherine should marry Henrys second son, henry, due to henry not wanting to loose Spanish allianceCatherine was betrothed in June 1503.The death of Isabella ended the anti-french alliance of England, spain and the Netherlands.This created a problem with Henry who wanted a trade link with the Netherlands.Closer relations with spain and france forced England into a closer relationship with Burgandy.Bad weather drove Philip on to the English coast, and was forced to take shelter. While henrys guest, Philip was persuaded to sign a treat with England which:The earl of Suffolk should be handed over to EnglandPrince henry would marry Philips sisterIn 1508, Hnery abandoned his attempts for a English/Burgandy/Spanish relationship and instead attempted to get an agreement from England/France/Burgandy. Succeeded in arranging a marriage between arch duke Charles and mary.Henry offered his son to the niece of Louis XII of france. Appeared that by 1508 henry had not along abandoned spain but created a anti-spanish alliance.Henry VII and TradeTreaty of Medina del campo allowed the export of goods from spain in foreign ships. Income from customs rose from 33,00 in 1485 to 40,000 in 1509Main focus was on Burgandy cause of clothHenry placed embargo on Burgandy between 1493 and 1496 due to support of warbeckPhillip of Burgandy forced to seek shelter in 1506 and Malus Intercursus was drawn up:trade with burgundy freephillip not to impose duties on sale of English clothwas not to exclude English cloth from his landssubjects still had to pay duties outlined Unpopular with people in burgundyHenry VIIIs personalityWent from tall and attractive to fat and bloatedHis temper grew as he got olderLast years were characterised by his meaness and severity. Was feared by his family membersBreak from Henry VIIDid nt see an immediate break from fathers policiesHenry announced Catherine was to become his wife, by doing this, henry would be seen as chivilerous by saving a wronged woman.Would also provide henry with ally for his aim of becoming a worrior kingWar and GloryFrance was much stronger than England, but henry faced home difficulties. Advisors were able to trick henry into renewing the truce with france in 1510 when henry wanted to go to war.Although henrys marriage to Catherine had secured a Spanish alliance, Ferdinand of aragon could break off the agreement at any time.It was not until 1512 that henry was able to fulfil his ambition of warLaunched expedition to france in 1512, but in 1513 decided to focus on area around Calais Henry was unable to return to france in 1514, instead he was forced into a peace policy. French promised to pay the arrears of the French pension, negotiated by his father.Henry created larger numbers of nobility. Usual relationship restored.Wolseys rise to powerSon of Ipswitch butcher, angered nobilityHe gained degree from oxford at age of fiteen.Wolsey took on orginisational tasks. Overcame logical tasks.Became henrys advisor, by 1514, all of henrys difficulties were put through him1515 became lord chancellor and cadinalHe was appointed Papal legate in 1524He had direct control over the legal system, wielding great influenceHenry VIIIS foreign policy in 1529Wanted to assert himself, demonstrate England as a world power.At first tried to do this through war, but due to work of wolsey, pushed for more peaceful policies because England simply could not afford war.Maintained good relations with the netheralnds as the English cloth trade was dominated by Antwerp.English policyWithin 1515-19 there was a new ruler of france, new holy roman emperor and both were young and wanted to assert their powerEngland seeked peace with france, which lead to Treaty of LondonSigned in London, October 1518 and wolsey was able to make henry appear to be pivotal power as each country signed seperatly with England. Showed England as centre of diplomatic activity.Field of cloth and gold, 1520Charles visited England in May 1520 and then henry met francis just outside Calais in june. Achieved nothing of diplomatic value.Lack of significance was obvious when henry met Charles again and agreed not to make separate peace with france.War with france1521, under terms of Treaty of Bruges wolsey agreed to invade france unless france made peace with CharlesEngland forced to send army in 1523, costing 400,000, a years income.Charles not only captured miland, but captured francis.August 1525 england signed a treaty of friendship with france, The treaty of moreWolseys domestic policiesWolsey was chief minister for fifteen years from 1514 to 1529He helped the poor rather than the nobility, causing anger among them. Between 1518 and 1529 legal action was taken against 264 landowners.Tried to increase revenue from crown lands. Income had dropped from 400,000 to 25,000. Act of Resumption was passed, raised over 322,000 in subsidies.Church in need of reformWas in desperate of reform and this was major reason for break with rome, as well as the desire for divorce.Wolsey pressured the pope to make him a cardinalIn 1515 it gave him precedence over archbishop of Canterbury on ceremonial occasionsHenry VIIIs divorce from Catherine of AragonHenry believed:his marriage was against gods willneeded a legitimate heir to secure the succession and tudor dynastyhad fallen in love with Anne BoleynIn order to marry Catherine he needed papal dispensationHenrys marriage had produced children, mary. Armed with this certainty he consulted wolsey and his lawyers, and on 17 may 1527 took first steps towards divorce.He made Henry Fitzroy, his illegitimate son with this mistress, Elizabeth Blount, in 1525 get experience at council in north suggesting it worried him he wouldnt have a sonIn February 1529, Campeggio said henrys love for anne was amazing, referring to love letters and suchWhy did attempts to divorce failFirst attempt to persuade the pope was not valid because it ignored divine law.Wolseys failure to secure divorce ended in his fall from power.Boleyns claimed that wolsey was hostile to them and it is certainly true that involved in politics than Catherine and therefore more likely to influence decision making, which would reduce wolseys influence.Wolsey was executed on 29th February 1530Religious changes 1536Henry had put forward his desire for a divorce in 1527 yet it was only in 1533 with Anne Boleyn pregnant, he took momentous decision to server ties with Rome and declare the Act of Restraint, preventing any appeals to any authority outside EnglandPrevented Catherine from appealing to the pope and allowed Cranmer to pronounce it.Direct payments to rome were stoppedAchbishop of Canterbury was given the power of dispensation1534 Act of Supremacy recognised that henry was head of the church in EnglandReligious changes 1536-471536: act of the dissolution of the smaller monasteries1536: act of the ten articles1538: royal injunctions which ordered an English bible to be present in all parishes within two years, discouraged pilgrimages and ordered removal of relics 1539: dissolution of the greater monasteriesIncreasing influence of Thomas, outing pressure on the bishops to agree to the distribution of the bible in English 1546: regency council set up with a balance of different factions, preventing a protestant reformation.Henry was too ill to write and so the privy council were allowed to use the dry stampDissolving of monasteries 1536: saw the dissolution of religious houses with an income of 200 a year.Second Act of dissolution confirmed voluntary surrender.Over 500 religious houses were dissolved, income was doubled and the re-sale value of monastic land was estimated at 1.3 millionCromwell needed to persuade parliament of the need for the dissolvent as many people valued not just the religious, but also social work done by the monasteries, as became evident in the pilgrimage of grace.Many of the larger monasteries had net values of 1000 per year and this money was used to build fortification on the south coast.The dissolution also provided henry with a large amount of land.Pilgrimage of Grace 1536Occurred in the most of the northern countries of England involving 40,000 revbels and outnumbered the kings men. Rising spread across Lancashire Under the leadership of Robert AskeThe rebels were able to seize York and then Lord Darcey handed over Pontefract castleHenry offered a pardon, and parliament met to discuss the issues and a truce. Aske insisted that the monasteries must not be closed before parliament met. An agreement was reached and the rebels dispersed. The rising had been serious for the following reasons:the rebels forces outnumbered those of the kingrebels controlled major castlewere well organised and had strong leadershiprebellion got support from all classesCaused due to religious reasons because:rebels restored some monks to monarsteriesmonasteries were important in the religious life of the north as they often acted as spiritual centresCaused by other reasons because:there had been poor harvests in 1536 and 1535taxation in peace time due to subsidy actFall of CromwellWas charged with treason in June 1540Those who brought the charges against Cromwell claimed that he was plotting to bring in a full protestant churchCromwell had persuaded henry to marry anne of cleeves in 1539, which ended in disaster.Fell mainly due to factional politics, Gardiner of the catholic faction introduced henry to norfolks niece, Catherine Howard, creating more catholic influence.vWas henry manipulated by faction in 1540sHis image was that of a man who had lost power and relied on factions.Recent work suggests henry was aware of factions trying to manipulate him, and him using this against themHenry was able to use a policy of divide and rule to strengthen his own position and prevent one group from dominatingHenrys choice of Catherine Parr as a final wife suggests maturity and realism. Catholic faction accused Thomas Cranmer as a heretic, Henry didnt believe them and allowed Cranmer to investigate his own case. Henry enjoyed embarrassing ministers and showing they were dependant on him.Catholic faction stated Catherine that she was a heretic, she won over her husband by promising to follow what he followed. Henry did not tell opponents over his decision and when they came to arrest Catherine, he threatened them with treason.Removal of Gardiner and the Howards was triumph for the reformist faction and adds weight to the view henry had lost control.How effectively did Henry rule England in the 1540sFirst part of henrys will was drawn up in December 1546 with the kings knowledge. Dtails about the regency council were only added when he was close to death. Did not require signature duew to dry stamp.Denny and Paget were able to keep henrys death a secret for a while, allowing the reformists to consolidate their position and set up Edwards uncle, Somerset, as leaderForeign policy in 1540s a failure, 2 million being spent or Ten years worth of income spent

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