AS Level History - Henry VII and Henry VIII Flashcards

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The government of England

The personality of the king was very important; he made all decisions.The royal household looked after the domestic needs of the king.The court moved with the king, entertained and tried to influence him.Law and Order in the localities was maintained by justices of peace.Parliament was not a regular feature of government, but called when the kind needed money.The king relied on nobles for advice and along with senior churchmen made up the Privy Council.

The War of the Roses

England had been unstable since 1399 with the throne regularly changing hands.These wars began in 1455 and lasted until 1485/7.They were fought between two families who had claims to the throne of England; the Yorkists and Lancastrians.The struggle started because of instability; Henry VI was a weak king and the nobles were powerful.

Monarchy in England

The throne had changed hands regularly since 1399Richard III usurped the throne in 1483 on the death of Edward IV.Richard may have murdered his nephews, the sons of Edward IV.The Buckingham Rebellion attempted to remove Richard before Henry Tudors invasion.

Henry Tudor

Had a weak claim to the throne of EnglandHad been in exile in France for 14 yearsHe hardly knew EnglandHis invasion was aided by French

Englands position in Europe

Had lost lands in France throughout the fifteenth centuryStill ruled over Calais Main threat was France as the most powerful nation in Europe.The Netherlands was important to England because of the cloth trade

Why was there so much unrest in the early years of Henrys rule

Although Henry Tudor won the battle of Bosworth it does not mean that he had the support of the country.Henrys claim to the throne was also very weak, being largely through his mother, Maragret Beaufort.Henry recognised his weak position and quickly took action to secure his position. One of his first acts was to date the start of his reign from the day before Bosworth; this meant that any who fought against him were traitors and could have their estates seized.Henry arranged his coronation for 30th October which was before Parliament met, so no one could claimed he was only king because of Parliament.Henry asked for Papal dispensation to allow him to marry Elizabeth of York, a distant cousin, and unite the houses of Lancaster and York. The marriage took place in January 1486 so that it could not be claimed that he owed the crown to his wife.The most important of the Yorkist claimants were two of Richardss nephews, Edward, Earl of Warwick and John De La Pole, Earl of Lincoln. Warwick was successfully removed by being sent to the tower, but Lincoln professed his loyalty and was invited to join the Kings council.The Earl of Surrey was kept in prison until 1489, but the duke of Northumberland was released at the end of 1485.Despite these actions, there were still other Yorkists who did not accept Henry as king and were willing to challenge his position.

Lovell Conspiracy

Henry faced rebellion within a year of taking the throne.There was trouble in the midlands, north and wales as Henry embarked on a royal progress to the north where Yorkist support was strong.The unrest came from dissatisfied Yorkists who had supported Richard. The rebellion in the midlands and north involved Lord Lovell and the Stafford brothers, all of whom were once loyal to Richard.The plan failed because Henry heard about the plot and sent an armed force to offer the rebels a choice of pardoning or excommunication and death. The rebels dispersed.

The Yorkshire Rebellion

The Yorkshire rebellion was the result of Henrys attempts to raise money to aid Brittany in its struggle against France.Parliament had granted Henry a subsidy of 100,000, very little was actually raised.Suffered from bad harvests in 1488.Despite the complaints, Henry refused to negotiate, but when the Earl of Northumberland tried to collect the tax he was murdered.Some evidence that the unrest was orchestrated by the Yorkists. Led by Sir John Egremont, a Yorkist supporter and illegitimate member of the percy family.Although the rising was easily crushed by a royal army, the money was not collected.This was recognised by Henry as he appointed the Earl of Surrey as his representative on the north, a man with no vested interest there and whose loyalty was secure because the restoration of his own estates depended upon his success in the region.

The Cornish Rebellion

The Cornish rising of 1497 was more serious.Caused by Henrys need for money and subsequent parliamentary vote. This time the threat was from Scotland as James IV sought to aid Perkin Warbeck and invade the north of England.Saw little reason why they should pay taxes to fund a war on Englands northern border.The rebels assembled at the Cornish country town of Bodmin in May 1497and their numbers swelled as they marched through the county.Attracted little support through Devon.The rebellion attracted 15,000 supportersNumbers did decline as the rebels approached London.The rebels made it clear that their complaints were against evil councillors rather than the king.Henry raised army 25,000 to rush them in Blackheath June 1497Henrys actions show that he was not prepared to get them a second chance.Cornish rebellion suggested twelve years into reign, and still lack of support.

How serious a threat was the Yorkist challengeSerious because Margaret of Burgandy, Edward IVs sister offered safe haven for Yorkist exiles and was willing to fund other enterprises and provide whatever rebels needed.

How successfully did Henry deal with the Simnel rebellion

Simnel claimed to be the earl of WarwickCame a year of Henry claiming the throne making it a serious matterHe raised support quickly in the Yorkist stronghold of Oxford and then IrelandReceived support from Margaret of Burgandy who went money and 2000 soldiersConspiracy began in autumn 1486, henry was not aware until early 1487Henry offered rebels a pardon and paraded the real earl of Warwick through London, but did not stop the rebellionBecame more serious in june when rebels landed in Lancashire and began to march south, it failed to gain support but numbered 8000 menMost were bored of chaos after war of roses and did not joinFaced henry in june 1487 at stoke, and henry won.Could have just as easily been reversed

How great a problem was the nobility?

Henry was a usurper and there was nothing preventing a powerful noble from attempting to overthow him.Many nobles still owned a lot of land. EG. Duke or Norfolk, Earl of NorthumberlandLand = Power. Henry needed to control this powerHe needed their help to govern and control as nobles had armies of men and support of local populations Could also provide leadership for rebellion which he didnt want, needed them on his side.

How effective were Henrys

Henry did make the task of controlling the nobility by:Limiting the amount he made noblesOnly 3 new earls compared to 9 under Edward IVCarrot and Stick method. In the past monarchs rewarded nobles with land, but this diminished the crowns power. Henry abandoned the system and re-established Order of the Garter.37 Knights of the Garter, this was seen as a great honour. Eg. Lord Daubeney was given a knighthood due to his fight against Cornish rebels.Kings council or Great councilGreat council was a clever way to ensure noble support.Attainders and Bonds and Recognisance.Acts of Attainder were damaging to families as they lost the right to possess their land, which spelt social economic ruin.Henry passed nine attainders against nobles, reversed five.Attainders was effective because good behaviour could result in their reversal and therefore encouraged loyalty as those attained sought to reverse their social and economic decline. Bonds and recognisancesThese were written agreements where nobles offended the king to either pay for their offence or pay money as security for future good behaviour.Sums involved 10,000 for the Marquess of DorsetBetween 1485 and 1509, 36 out of 62 noble families were involved in the agreements.Retainders were seen as a threat by Henry. Although he did not intend to abolish retaining, 1485 Henry made Lords and Commons swear not to retain illegally. This stopped them from getting big armies.The penalties were severe, with a fine of 5 per month for each illegal retainer.When applied to Lord Burgavenny in 1506, it cost him over 70,000Henry also asserted power by insisting on his feudal rights:Marriage: the king exploited it so profit from arranged marriages of heirs.Wardship: the estates of minors were placed under royal control until the minor came of age, but in the meantime the estate was exploited to maximise the income for the crownRelief: this was a payment to the king when land was inheritedLivery: this was a payment to the king to recover land from wardshipRegaining of former crown lands from nobles.1489 Act of Resumption, which recovered land granted away since before the wars of the roses.As a result of this policy Steven Gunn has estimated that the crown had five times more land by the end of Henry VIIs reign than Henry VI.

Henry Tudor

Had a weak claim to the throne of EnglandHad been in exile in France for 14 yearsHe hardly knew EnglandHis invasion was aided by French

Englands position in Europe Had lost lands in France throughout the fifteenth centuryStill ruled over Calais Main threat was France as the most powerful nation in Europe.The Netherlands was important to England because of the cloth trade

How far did Henry change central government

Needed advisors Kings council.The council was chosen by the king and although there were over 200 councillers during the reign, meetings were attended by smaller number.Made up of Lord Chancellor, Morton, the lord