henry viii – james i

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Henry viii James i

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  • 1. Henry VIII James I Tudor England

2. Henry VIII Born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia at Greenwich. The third child of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. His grandparents were King Edward IV of England and Queen Elizabeth Woodville. Only three of Henry VIII's six siblings: Arthur (the Prince of Wales), Margaret and Mary, survived infancy. 3. Already as a child: appointed Constable of Dover Castle, Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports, created Duke of York, appointed Earl Marshal of England, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland His elder brother Arthur married the Spanish Catherine of Aragon but died a couple months later. At the age of eleven, Henry, Duke of York, became heir-apparent to the Throne. He was also created Prince of Wales. 4. Henry VII demanded an alliance between England and Spain through a marriage between Henry, Prince of Wales, and Catherine. Since the Prince of Wales was supposed to marry his brother's widow, he first had to get a dispensation from the Pope. Henry became King after his fathers death in 1509. Henry married Catharina 11Th of June 1509. Cathatinas first pregnancy ended in miscarriage in 1510. In January 1511 she gave birth to a son that died two month later. 5. King Henry became attracted to the young Anne Boleyn, and at the same time infuriated with Catherines inability to produce a healthy male heir. He asked the Church to annul their marriage. The pope refused the kings request in fear that It would anger the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, who was Catherines nephew. The Pope went on to excommunicate Henry in July 1533. Considerable religious upheaval followed. The Act of Supremacy 1534 declared that the king is head of the English church. This was the beginning of the English Reformation. 6. Rejecting the decisions of the Pope, Parliament validated the marriage between Henry and Anne with the Act of Succession 1534. In 1536, Queen Anne began to lose Henry's favour. After the Princess Elizabeth's birth, Queen Anne had two pregnancies that ended in either miscarriage or stillbirth. Henry VIII had begun to turn his attentions to another lady of his court, Jane Seymour. In May 1536, the Court condemned Anne and her brother to death. Only days after Anne's execution in 1536, Henry married Jane Seymour. Jane gave birth to a son, the Prince Edward, in 1537, and died two weeks later 7. Major Acts At about the same time as his marriage to Jane Seymour, Henry granted his assent to the Laws in Wales Act 1535, uniting England and Wales into one nation. During the English Reformation Henry continued persecute his religious opponents and the Dissolution of Monasteries. In 1536, an uprising called Pilgrimage of Grace broke out in Northern England. To calm the rebellious Roman Catholics, Henry agreed to allow Parliament to address their concerns. Furthermore, he agreed to grant a general mercy to all those involved. 8. He kept neither promise, and a second uprising occurred in 1537. As a result, the leaders of the rebellion were convicted of treason and executed. In 1539, England's remaining monasteries were all dissolved, and their property transferred to the Crown. Abbots and priors lost their seats in the House of Lords; only archbishops and bishops stayed. The Lords Spiritual, were for the first time outnumbered by the Lords Temporal. 9. Henry's mistresses Historians are only sure of the names of two of Henry's mistresses: Bessie Blount and Mary Boleyn (Anne's sister). Several others: Jane Popicourt, in 1510 a Frenchwoman at the court a mistress of the kidnapped Duc de Longueville Lady Anne Stafford, in 1514 Margaret (Madge) Shelton, in 1534-5 There are also references to a lady he housed in a manor house (unknown year), an 'unknown lady' in 1534 and a lady from Tournai, in his excursions into France in 1513. 10. Henry's innovative court Henrys court was a centre of artistic innovation. The discovery of America or "The New World" set the stage for Henry's innovative attitude. Henry was among the first European rulers to learn about the true geography of the world, a revolutionary discovery. In 1507, the cartographers Martin Waldseemller and Matthias Ringmann published the first "modern" map of the world, the first map to accurately illustrate the American Continent and a separate Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, a radical thought for the time. 11. More wives Henry wanted to get married again. Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex suggested Anne, the sister of the Protestant Duke of Cleves, who was seen as an important ally in case of a Roman Catholic attack on England. Hans Holbein the Younger was sent to Cleves to paint a portrait of Anne for the King. After regarding Holbein's flattering portrayal, Henry agreed to wed Anne. On Anne's arrival in England, Henry is said to have found her very ugly. Nevertheless, he married her on 6 January 1540. 12. Henry wanted to end the marriage, not only because of his personal feelings but also because of political considerations. The Duke of Cleves had become engaged in a dispute with the Holy Roman Emperor. On 28 July 1540 Henry married the young Catherine Howard, Anne Boleyn's first cousin. Thomas Cranmer, who was opposed to the powerful Catholic Howard family, brought evidence of Queen Catherine's affairs with other men to the King. Catherine's marriage was annulled shortly before her execution. 13. Death Catherine Parr was the last of his six wives Later in life, Henry was grossly overweight, with a waist measurement of 137 cm, and possibly suffered from gout. Henry's increased size dates from an accident in 1536. He suffered a thigh wound which not only prevented him from taking exercise and may have indirectly led to his death, which occurred on 28 January 1547. 14. King Edward VI 15. King Edward VI Born: 12 October 1537 Hampton Court Palace Died: 6 July 1553 Greenwich Palace (15 years old) 16. King Edward VI Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547, when Edward was only 9 years old. Edward VI was crowned as king at Westminster Abbey on 20 February 1547 Reign: 28 January 1547 - 6 July 1553 From the age of 9 to his death at the age of 15 17. King Edward VI Edward's reign was marked by increasingly harsh Protestant reforms, the loss of control of Scotland, and an economic downturn. A period of social unrest begun earlier intensified during his rule, and conflicts with the French increased. As he grew up he noticed that there were not as many people from a poorer background attending church so reigned the country by removing the most ornate ornaments from the churches; this resulted in King Edward bringing himself closer to his people through the use of religion. 18. King Edward VI Edward VI's uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, ruled England in the name of his nephew as Lord Protector from 1547 to 1549. Henry VIIIs will named sixteen executors, who were to act as a Council of Regency until Edward VI achieved majority at the age of eighteen. Edward's entire rule was mediated through a council of regency as he never reached maturity. 19. King Edward VI Edward VI was England's first ruler who was Protestant at the time of his ascension to the throne. Many Catholic rites were replaced with Protestant ones during the reign of Edward VI One of the most notable was Cranmer's Book of Common Prayer, which was published in 1549 to replace the old liturgical books in Latin. 20. King Edward VI Inflation and the cost of war combined to double prices from 1547 to 1549. On 8 August, taking advantage of internal strife, the French, under Henry II, formally declared war on England. The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular, even among his own Council. In October 1549 he was deposed and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick 21. King Edward VI The Duke of Somerset became extremely unpopular and in October 1549 he was deposed and sent under arrest to the Tower of London by John Dudley, Earl of Warwick John Dudley, Earl of Warwick did not make himself Lord Protector, and even encouraged Edward VI into declaring his majority as soon as he was sixteen. Unlike Somerset, Warwick was a man of action who was full of ambition to officially install and enforce an inflexible form of Protestantism and enrich himself with land and power. 22. King Edward VI The rise of the Earl of Warwick (later Duke of Northumberland) was accompanied by the fall of Catholicism in England Use of the Book of Common Prayer in all Church services was more strictly enforced all official editions of the Bible were accompanied by anti-Catholic annotations. Catholic symbols in churches were desecrated by mobs the Ordinal of 1550 replaced the divine ordination of priests with a government-run appointment system 23. King Edward VI The first symptoms of tuberculosis were manifest in January 1553 and by May it was obvious that his condition was fatal. Edward was enough the master of his own destiny to have concerns about the succession addressed Having been brought up a Protestant, he had no desire to be succeeded by his older half-sister and devout Catholic, Mary. 24. King Edward VI When it became clear that Edward's life was to be a short one, the king's advisors persuaded him to attempt to exclude his two half sisters, the devout Catholic Mary and moderate Protestant Elizabeth, from the line of succession to the throne in order to put the Lady Jane Grey, the solidly Protestant daughter-in-law of the chief Regent, next in line to succeed the king. 25. King Edward VI The Duke of Northumberland then foolishly attempted to rule through the Duchess of Suffolk's daughter, the Lady Jane Grey. Jane was married off to the Duke of Northumberland's younger son, Guilford Dudley Northumberland plotted to have his daughter-in- law, the Lady Jane, placed next in line to succeed Edward 26. King