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  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    MEMBER OF GROUP AND SUPERVISORS

    1

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

    First and foremost, thank you to Allah S.W.T for giving us the strength to finish up this

    project report. Without Your Willingness we would not be able to complete this project.

    It would be impossible to acknowledge adequately all the people who have been

    influential, directly or indirectly in forming this project.

    We would like to take this opportunity to express our deepest gratitude to our

    supervisors, Encik Mohd Imran Bin Zainuddin and Puan Sunita Binti Jobli who has

    given us his constant encouragement constructive advises and his patient in

    monitoring our progress in this project.

    Our appreciation and special thanks goes, Puan Hasnora Binti Jafri, Puan Junaidah

    Binti Jai, Encik Aziz Bin Ishak for supplying the valuable information and guidance for

    this project.

    We greatly indebted to Encik Napis Bin Sudin for his cooperation and willingness to be

    interviewed and for provide us with invaluable information and for his resourcefulness

    in gathering material.

    Special thanks owe to Puan Masni Bt Ahmad for her willingness to be interviewed and

    for the painstaking care she has shown in assisting us throughout the project.

    We also would like to express our appreciation to the Malaysia Industrial Development

    Authority (MIDA), Pusat Informasi Sirim Berhad, Petronas Resource Center, Jabatan

    Perangkaan Malaysia and Tiram Kimia Sdn.Bhd. (Kuala Lumpur) for their generous

    supply of relevant documents and material needed research.

    Last but not least to all my lecturers, family, friends and collegues for their

    encouragement and kind support when we need it most.

    2

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    ABSTRACT

    The purpose for this MTBE or Methyl tertiary Butyl Ether plant is to produce 300,000

    metric tonne/year. MTBE is the simplest and most cost effective oxygenate to produce,

    transport and deliver to customers. The additive works by changing the oxygenate /

    fuel ratio so that gasoline burns cleaner, reducing exhaust emissions of carbon

    monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, fine particulates and toxic. Two units will

    be considered which are the fluidizations, (Snamprogetti) Unit and the Etherification

    Unit. The raw materials used are isobutane, methanol, and water as feedstock. In

    addition, two types of catalysts are chromia alumina catalyzed compound in

    Snamprogetti Unit, while sulphonic ion exchanged resin catalyzed is used in the MTBE

    reactor. A good deal of catalyst has been devoted to improve the activity, selectivity,

    and the lifetime of the catalysts.

    In the Design Project 2, we emphasize in the individual chemical and mechanical

    designs for selected equipments in the plant. The chosen equipments are Catalytic

    Cracking Reactor, Multitubular Fixed Bed Reactor, MTBE Distillation Column, Liquid-

    Liquid Extraction Column and Heat Exchanger.

    Design Project 2 also includes Process Control, Safety, Economic Evaluation, Process

    Integration and as well as Waste Treatment, which are considered as group works.

    3

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    CONTENTS

    TITLE PAGE

    DECLARATION IICERTIFICATION IIIACKNOWLEDGEMENT VABSTRACT VILIST OF TABLESLIST OF FIGURESLIST OF NOMENCLATURES

    REPORT 1

    CHAPTER 1 PROCESS BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Introduction 11.2 Historical Review of MTBE Production Process 2

    1.2.1 UOP Oleflex Process 31.2.2 Philips Star Process 31.2.3 ABB Lummus Catofin Process 31.2.4 Snmprogetti Yartsingtez FBD Process 4

    CHAPTER 2 PROCESS SELECTION

    2.1 Method Consioderation 52.2 Detailed Process Description 7

    2.2.1 Snaprogetti Yarsingtez fbd Process 72.2.2 MTBE Unit 82.2.3 Distillation Column Unit 82.2.4 Liquid-Liquid Extraction Unit 9

    CHAPTER 3 ECONOMIC SURVEY

    3.1 Market Survey 103.1.1 World Market 10

    3.2 Asia Market 113.3 Demand 113.4 Production Capacity 14

    4

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    3.5 Supply 143.6 Market Price 15

    3.6.1 Methanol 153.6.2 Isobutane 163.6.3 Catalyst 163.6.4 Conclusion 16

    3.7 Economic Analysis 173.7.1 Break Even Analysis 173.7.2 Data Calculation1 20

    CHAPTER 4 PLANT LOCATIONS & SITE SELECTION

    4.1 Plant Location 244.2 General Consideration On the site Selection 24

    4.2.1 Location with Respect To Marketing Area 254.2.2 Raw Material supply 254.2.3 Transport Facilities 254.2.4 Availability Of Labor 254.2.5 Availability Of Utilities 264.2.6 Environmental Impact and Effluent Disposal 264.2.7 Local Community Considerations 264.2.8 Land (Site Consideration) 264.2.9 Political and Strategic Consideration 27

    4.3 Overview on Prospective Locations 274.3.1 Teluk Kalong 284.3.2 Tanjung Langsat 284.3.3 Bintulu 29

    4.4 Conclusion 33

    CHAPTER 5 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATION

    5.1 Introduction 345.2 Stack gas 35

    5.2.1 Gas Emission treatment 355.3 Wastewater Treatment 35

    5.3.1 Wastewater characteristic 355.3.1a) Priority pollutants 365.3.1b) Organic 365.3.1c) Inorganic 375.3.1d) pH and Alkalinity 375.3.1e) Temperature 38

    5.3.2 Liquid waste treatment 385.3.2a) Equalization treatment 385.3.2b) Solid waste treatment 39

    5.3.3 Waste Minimization 41

    5

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    CHAPTER 6 SAFETY CONSIDERATION

    6.1 Introduction 426.2 Material Safety Data Sheet 43

    6.2.1 Isobutane 436.2.1.1 Product Information 43

    Physical & Chemical Properties 436.2.1.2 Immediate Health Effects 446.2.1.3 First Aid Measure 44

    6.2.2 N-Butane 446.2.2.1 Handling and Storage 45

    6.2.3 Methanol 456.2.4 MTBE 46

    6.2.4.1 Physical State and Appearance466.2.4.2 Physical Dangers 466.2.4.3 Chemical Dangers 476.2.4.4 Inhalation Risks 47

    6.2.5 TBA 476.2.5.1 Recognition 486.2.5.2 Evaluation 486.2.5.3 Controls 48

    6.3 Hazard Identification & Emergency Safety & Health Risk 49

    CHAPTER 7 MASS BALANCE

    7.1 Snamprogetti -Yarsingtez FBD Unit 517.2 Separator 537.3 Mixer 537.4 MTBE Reactor 54

    7.4.1 1st Reaction in rector 557.4.2 2nd Reaction in reactor 567.4.3 3rd Reaction in reactor 577.4.4 Overall reaction 58

    7.5 Distillation Column 597.6 Liquid Extraction Column 607.7 Distillation Column 617.8 Overall reaction system; flow diagram 627.9 Scales Up Factor 63

    CHAPTER 8 ENERGY BALANCES

    8.1 Energy Equation 648.2 Energy balance: Sample of calculation 65

    8.2.1 Pump 1 738.2.2 Cooler 1 758.2.3 Separator 768.2.4 MTBE Reactor 788.2.5 Pump 2 79

    6

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    8.2.6 Mixer 808.2.7 Expander 1 818.2.8 Cooler 1 828.2.9 Distillation Column 1 848.2.10 Cooler 2 868.2.11 Pump 3 878.2.12 Extraction Column 888.2.13 Pump 4 898.2.14 Pump 5 918.2.15 Distillation Column 2 928.2.16 Cooler 3 93

    CHAPTER 9 HYSYS 95

    APPENDICES

    REPORT 2

    CONTENTS

    PAGE

    CHAPTER 1 CHEMICAL DESIGN AND MECHANICAL DESIGN

    SECTION 1 CATALYTIC CRACKING DESIGN

    1.1 Introduction 11.2 Estimation of Cost Diameter of Reactor 31.3 Calculation of TDH Height 41.4 Minimum Fluidization Velocity 41.5 Calculation for Terminal Velocity 51.6 Find the Value Kih 81.7 Find the value Eo 91.8 Calculation of Solid Loading 101.9 Calculation for Holding Time 121.10 Calculation for Pressure Drop 141.11 Determine the Direction and Flowrate 151.12 Design of Cyclone 171.13 Calculation for Mechanical Design 21

    2.2 Mechanical Design2.2.1 Introduction 582.2.2 Design stress 592.2.3 Welded Joint Efficiency 59

    7

  • PRODUCTION OF 300,000 METRIC TON OF MTBE PER YEAR

    2.2.4 Corrosion allowance 592.2.5 Minimum thickness of cylindrical section of shell 592.2.6 Minimum thickness of domed head 602.2.7 Loading stress 612.2.7.1 Dead weight load 61

    1.2.7.1 Dead Weight of Vessel 611.2.7.2 Weight of the Tubes 621.2.7.3 Weight of Insulation 621.2.7.4 Weight of Catalyst 631.2.7.5 Total Weight 631.2.7.6 Wind Loading 631.2.7.7 Analysis of Stresses 64

    2.2.8 Dead Weight Stress 652.2.9 Bending Stress 652.2.10 Radial Stress 662.2.11 Check Elastic Stability 672.2.12 Vessel Support 682.2.13 Skirt Thickness 682.2.14 Height of the Skirt 692.2.15 Bending Stress at Base of the Skirt 702.2.16 Bending Stress in the Skirt 702.2.17 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design 712.2.18 Compensation for Opening and Branches 732.2.19 Compensation for Other Nozzles 742.2.20 Bolted Flange Joint 74

    2.2.20.1 Type of Flanges Selected 742.2.20.2 Gasket 75

    2.2.21 Flange face 75

    SECTION 3 MTBE DISTILLATION COLUMN

    3.1 Introduction 783.2 Selection f Construction Material 793.3 Chemical Design 79

    3.3.1 Determine the Number of Plate 813.3.2 Determination of Number of Plate 883.3.3 Physical Properties 893.3.4 Determination of Column Di

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