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<ul><li><p>Jacobs, James F. et al Glossary of technical terms and acronyms used in this book MTBE: Effects on Soil and Groundwater ResourcesEd. James Jacobs et al. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2001</p></li><li><p>Appendix A</p><p>Glossary of technical terms andacronyms used in this book</p><p>Acute Exposure A short-term exposure to a chemical, usually consistingof a single exposure or dose administered for a period of less than 24 hours(acute : chronic as short-term : long-term).Adsorb To gather (a gas, liquid, or dissolved substance) on a surface in acondensed layer, as when charcoal adsorbs gases.Advection The usually horizontal movement of a mass of fluid (air, forexample); transport by such movement.Animal Cancer Bioassay A long-term experimental study in which ani-mals are given high doses of a chemical in order to obtain information on thecarcinogenicity of the chemical in test animals. The likelihood that a chemicalwill cause cancer in humans at the low doses typical of human exposures isestimated from information obtained from animal cancer bioassays.Annular Space/Annulus The space in a soil boring or monitoring wellbetween the casing and the borehole wall.Benzene A volatile toxic liquid aromatic hydrocarbon used as a solventand in gasoline. Benzene has been determined to cause cancer in humansexposed to high concentrations.CPF Cancer potency factor (also called slope factor) in units of (mg/[kg body mass]/d)-1.Cal EPA California Environmental Protection AgencyCarbon Monoxide (CO) A colorless, very toxic gas that is formed as aproduct of the incomplete combustion of carbon and carbon-based fuels suchas gasoline.Carcinogen A substance or agent producing or inciting cancer.Carcinogenicity The ability of a chemical to induce cancer by reactingwith genetic material or by interfering with other normal biological processesof the bodys cells.Chronic Exposure A long-term exposure to a chemical for a period of 1year or more in animals, and more than 7 years in humans.Clean Air Act Legislation originally passed by the U.S. Congress in 1976,and amended in 1990. Among other provisions, the 1990 Amendments man-date the use of oxygenated fuels and reformulated gasoline in nonattainmentareas (areas with poor air quality). The Clean Air Act led to the establishment</p><p>83</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>of air quality standards, including air quality criteria that are based on whatis known about the effects of air pollutants on animals, humans, plants, andmaterials.Co-Elute Refers to substances whose retention times in a chromatographiccolumn are the same. The substances exit the column at the same time;therefore, they co-elute, and the detection of one substance through chro-matographic analysis may be masked by another.Diffusion The gradual mixing of the molecules of two or more substancesowing to random molecular motion, as in the dispersion of a vapor in air.Dose The quantity of a substance administered to the body over a speci-fied time period units: mg/(kg body mass)/d or mg/[(kg body mass)d].Dose-response Assessment A step in the assessment of risks to humansfrom potentially toxic agents, in which the relationship between the doselevels to which animals or humans are exposed and the health-effect re-sponses at each dose level are characterized in a quantitative manner.Elute To remove (adsorbed material) from an adsorbent by means of asolvent.Epidemiology A branch of medical science that deals with the incidence,distribution, and control of disease in a population; the sum of the factorscontrolling the presence or absence of a disease or pathogen.Exposure Contact of an organism with one or more substances.Exposure route Mode of substance bodily intake: inhalation, dermalsorption, ingestion.Exposure pathway Mode of substance transport from source to receptorthrough air, soil, water, and the food chain.Formaldehyde A reaction product in the photooxidation of hydrocarbonsand a primary metabolite, or breakdown product, of MTBE. Formaldehydeis classified as a primary irritant at high-dose environmental exposures.Gavage Introduction of material into the stomach by a tube.Incremental Risk Risk from a specific cause over and above the total riskfrom all causes.Inhalation Exposure Intake of a chemical or substance (e.g., dust) into thebody and the lungs through breathing.Intake rate Quantity of a substance taken into the body per unit time units: mg/(kg body mass)/d or mg/[(kg body mass)d].LC50 Lethal concentration that is estimated to kill 50% of control laboratoryanimals from a specified inhalation exposure duration (usually 96 hours).LD50 Lethal dose that is estimated to kill 50% of control laboratory animalsfrom a specified ingestion exposure duration (usually 96 hours).LOAEL Lowest observed adverse effect level.MCL Maximum contaminant level (for contaminant in water).MRL Minimal risk level.MTBE Methyl tertiary-butyl ether is an organic liquid containing oxygenthat is added to reformulated gasoline and fuel in order to reduce theemissions of toxics into the air. MTBE is the most widely used oxygenate inthe U.S.</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Metabolism The sum of the processes by which a particular substance ishandled in the living body.Metabolite A product of metabolism; the compound formed when aparent compound is metabolized as a result of biological processes in thebody.NOAEL No observed adverse effect level.Oxygenated Fuel Gasoline to which additives containing oxygen havebeen added. Oxygenated fuel differs from reformulated gasoline in the amountof oxygenate (2.7% by mass, 15% by volume) that it contains. (See Reformu-lated Gasoline.)Ozone (O3) A molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms that is a majorair pollutant in the lower atmosphere. Ozone is a primary component ofurban smog, resulting from the combustion of gasoline.Part per million A way of expressing low concentrations of a substancein a medium such as air or water; for example, 1 part per million MTBEmeans that there is 1 unit of MTBE in a million units of air, soil, or water.Part per billion A way of expressing very low concentrations of a sub-stance in a medium such as air or water; for example, 1 part per billion MTBEmeans that there is 1 unit MTBE in a billion units of air, soil, or water.Pharmacokinetics The study of the bodily absorption, distribution, me-tabolism, and excretion of a drug or chemical.Proposition 65 Safe Drinking Water &amp; Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986(California).Reference dose (RfD)/Reference concentration (RfC) (inhalation) TheU.S. EPA-approved intake rate for a substance that is unlikely to result insignificant adverse noncancer (mostly acute but also chronic) effects.Reformulated gasoline Gasoline to which additives containing oxygenhave been added. The amended Clean Air Act requires the year-round useof reformulated gasoline in areas with unhealthful levels of ozone. Reformu-lated gasoline differs from oxygenated fuel in the amount of oxygenate (2.0%by mass, 11% by volume) that it contains. (See Oxygenated Fuel.)Risk The statistical probability that a particular adverse effect will occur,measured in dimensions of frequency or incidence (i.e., one in one million).Risk assessment The assessment of the likelihood and potential magni-tude of adverse health effects associated with human exposures to agentssuch as toxic chemicals or radiation. The four steps of risk assessment are:hazard identification, toxicity assessment, exposure assessment, and riskcharacterization.Tertiary-butyl alcohol Tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) is a primary metabo-lite of MTBE in the body. TBA may be associated with some adverse healtheffects observed in animals.Threshold dose The dose above which a chemical or other toxic agentproduces an adverse health effect and below which no adverse health effectsare seen or anticipated.Toxicity The ability of an agent, such as a chemical or drug, to causeharmful health effects to living organisms.</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Toxicology A science that deals with poisons and their effects and with theproblems (clinical, industrial, or legal, for example) involved therein.Vadose Zone A term used in geology indicating a soil zone found orlocated above the water table. (The term unsaturated zone also fits thisdefinition.)</p><p>SourcesMerriam-Websters Collegiate Dictionary,, 2000Jacques GuertinChristy Herron</p></li><li><p>Jacobs, James F. et al Conversions for international system (SI metric) and United States units MTBE: Effects on Soil and Groundwater ResourcesEd. James Jacobs et al. Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2001</p></li><li><p>Appendix B</p><p>Conversions for internationalsystem(SI metric) andUnited States units</p><p>Area</p><p>Square Millimeters Square centimeters (cm2) 0.01Square inches (in2) 1.55 103</p><p>Square Centimeters Square millimeters (mm2) 100.0Square meters (m2) 1. 104</p><p>Square inches 0.1550Square feet (ft2) 1.07639 103</p><p>Square Inches Square millimeters 645.16Square centimeters 6.4516Square meters 6.4516 104</p><p>Square feet 69.444 104</p><p>Square feet Square meters 0.0929Hectares (ha) 9.2903 106</p><p>Square inches 144.0Acres 2.29568 105</p><p>Square yards Square meters 0.83613Hectares 8.3613 105</p><p>Square feet 9.0Acres 2.0612 104</p><p>Square meters Hectares 1.0 104</p><p>Square feet 10.76391Acres 2.47 104</p><p>Square yards (yd2) 1.19599</p><p>Acres Square meters 4046.8564Hectares 0.40469Square feet 4.356 104</p><p>Hectares Square meters 1.0 104</p><p>Acres 2.471</p><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Square kilometers Square meters 1.0 106</p><p>Hectares 100.0Square feet 107.6391 105</p><p>Acres 247.10538Square miles (Mi2) 0.3861</p><p>Square miles Meters 258.998Hectares 81 104</p><p>Square kilometers (km2) 258.99881Square feet 2.58999Acres 2.78784 107</p><p>Force per unit area, pressure-stress</p><p>Pounds per square inch Kilopascals (kPa) 6.89476Meters-head (a) 0.70309Mm of Hg (b) 51.7151Feet of water (b) 2.3067Pounds per square foot (lb/ft2) 144.0Std. atmospheres 68.046 103</p><p>Pounds per square foot Kilopascals 0.04788Meters-head (a) 4.8826 103</p><p>Mm of Hg (b) 0.35913Feet of water (a) 16.0189 103</p><p>Pounds per square inch 6.9444 103</p><p>Std. Atmospheres 0.47254 103</p><p>Short tons per square foot Kilopascals 95.76052Pounds per square inch (lb/in2) 13.88889</p><p>Meters-head (a) Kilopascals 9.80636Mm of Hg (b) 73.554Feet of water (a) 3.28084Pounds per square inch 1.42229Pounds per square foot 204.81</p><p>Feet of water (a) Kilopascals 2.98898Meters-head (a) 0.3048Mm of Hg (b) 22.4193Inches of Hg (b) 0.88265Pounds per square inch 0.43351Pounds per square foot 62.4261</p><p>Kilopascals Newtons per square meter (N/m2) 1.0 103</p><p>Mm of Hg (b) 7.50064Meters-head (a) 0.10197Inches of Hg (b) 0.2953Pounds per square foot 20.8854Pounds per square inch 0.14504Std. atmospheres 9.8692 103</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Kilograms (f) Kilopascals 9.80665 103</p><p> per square meter Mm of Hg (b) 73.556 103</p><p>Pounds per square inch 1.4223 103</p><p>Millibars (mbars) Kilopascals 0.10</p><p>Bars Kilopascals 100.0</p><p>Std. Atmospheres Kilopascals 101.325Mm of Hg (b) 760.0Pounds per square inch 14.70Feet of water 33.90</p><p>Length</p><p>Micrometers Millimeters 1.0 13</p><p>Meters 1.0 16</p><p>Angstrom units () 1.0 104</p><p>Mils .03937Inches 3.93701 105</p><p>Millimeters Micrometers 1.0 103</p><p>Centimeters (cm) 0.1Meters 1.0 103</p><p>Mils 39.37008Inches .03937Feet (ft) 3.28084 103</p><p>Centimeters Millimeters 10.0Meters 0.01Mils 0.3937 103</p><p>Inches 0.3937Feet 0.03281</p><p>Inches Millimeters 25.40Meters 0.0254Mils 1.0 103</p><p>Feet 0.08333</p><p>Feet Millimeters 304.8Meters 0.3048Inches 12.0Yards (yd) 0.33333</p><p>Yards Meters 0.9144Inches 36.0Feet 3.0</p><p>Meters Millimeters 1.0 103</p><p>Kilometers (km) 1.0 103</p><p>Inches 39.37008Yards 1.09361Miles (mi) 6.21371 104</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Kilometers Meters 1.0 103</p><p>Feet 3.28084 103</p><p>Miles 0.62137</p><p>Miles Meters 1.60934 103</p><p>Kilometers 1.60934Feet 5280.0</p><p>Mass</p><p>Grams Kilograms (kg) 1.0 103</p><p>Ounces (avdp) 0.03527</p><p>Ounces (avdp) Grams (g) 28.34952Kilograms 0.02835Pounds (avdp) 0.0625</p><p>Pounds (avdp) Kilograms 0.45359Ounces (avdp) 16.00</p><p>Kilograms Kilograms (force)-second squaredper meter (kgf.s2/m) 0.10197</p><p>Pounds 2.20462Slugs 0.06852</p><p>Slugs Kilograms 14.5939</p><p>Short tons Kilograms 907.1847Metric tons (t) 0.90718Pounds (avdp) 2000.0Yards 1760.0</p><p>Metric tons Kilograms 1.0 103</p><p>(tonne or megagram) Pounds (avdp) 2.20462 103</p><p>Short tons 1.10231</p><p>Mass per unit volume, density, and mass capacity</p><p>Pounds per cubic foot Kilogram per cubic meter (kg/m3) 16.01846Slugs per cubic foot (slug/ft3) 0.03108Pounds per gallon (lb/gal) 0.13368</p><p>Pounds per gallon Kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m3) 119.8264Slugs per cubic foot 0.2325</p><p>Pounds per cubic yard Kilograms per cubic meter 0.59328Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3) 0.03704</p><p>Grams per cubic centimeter Kilograms per cubic meter 1.0 103</p><p>Ounces per gallon (oz/gal) Grams per liter (g/l) 7.48915</p><p>Kilograms per cubic Grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3) 1.0 103</p><p>meter Pounds per cubic foot (lb/ft3) 1.0 103</p><p>Pounds per gallon 62.4297 103</p><p>Pounds per cubic yard 1.68556</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Long tons per cubic yard Kilograms per cubic meter 1328.939</p><p>Ounces per cubic inch Kilograms per cubic meter 1729.994(oz/in3)</p><p>Slugs per cubic foot Kilograms per cubic meter 515.3788</p><p>Velocity</p><p>Feet per second Centimeter per square meter (cm2) 3.11 104</p><p>Square feet (ft2) 3.35 107</p><p>Meters per second (m/s) 0.3048Kilometers per hour (km/h) 1.09728Miles per hour (mi/h) 0.68182</p><p>Meters per second Centimeters per square meter (cm2) 1.02 103</p><p>Square feet (ft2) 1.10 106</p><p>Feet per second (ft/s) 3.28Kilometers per hour 3.60Feet per second (ft/s) 3.28084Miles per hour 2.23694</p><p>Centimeters per Square feet (ft2) 1.08 10-3</p><p>squared meter (cm2) Meters per second (m/s) 9.80 102</p><p>Feet per second (ft/sec) 3.22 103</p><p>Square feet (ft2) Centimeters per squared meter (cm2) 9.29 102</p><p>Meters per second (m/s) 9.11 105</p><p>Feet per second (ft/sec) 2.99 106</p><p>Kilometers per hour Meters per second 0.27778Feet per second 0.91134Miles per hour 0.62147</p><p>Miles per hour Kilometers per hour 1.690934Meters per second 0.44704Feet per second 1.46667</p><p>Viscosity</p><p>Centipoise Pascal-second (Pas) 1.0 103</p><p>Poise 0.01Pound per foot-hour (lb/ft * h) 2.41909Pound per foot-section (lb/ft *s) 6.71969 104</p><p>Slug per foot-second (slug/ft * s) 2.08854 105</p><p>Pascal-second Centipoise 1000.0Pound per foot-hour 2.41990 109</p><p>Pound per foot-second 0.67197Slug per foot-second 20.885 103</p><p>Pounds per foot-hour Pascal-second 4.13379 104</p><p>Pound per foot-second 2.77778 104</p></li><li><p>2001 CRC Press LLC</p><p>Pounds per foot-second Pascal-second 1.48816Slug per foot-second 31.0809 103</p><p>Centipoise 1.48816 103</p><p>Centistokes Square meters per second (m2/s) 1.0 106</p><p>Square feet per second (ft2/s) 10.76391 106</p><p>Stokes 0.01</p><p>Square feet per second Square meters per second 9.2903 102</p><p>Centistokes 0.2903 104</p><p>Stokes Square meters per second 1.0 104</p><p>Rhe 1 per pascal-second (1/Pas) 10.0</p><p>Volume-capacity</p><p>Cubic millimeters Cubic centimeters (cm3) 1.0 103</p><p>Liters (l) 1.0 106</p><p>Cubic inches (in3) 61.02374 106</p><p>Cubic centimeters Liters 1.0 106</p><p>Milliliters (ml) 1.0</p><p>Cubic inches (in3) 61.02374 106</p><p>Fluid ounces (fl.oz) 33.814 106</p><p>Milliliters Liters 1.0 106</p><p>Cubic centimeters 1.0</p><p>Cubic inches Milliliters 16.38706Cubic feet (ft3) 57.87037 105</p><p>Liters Cubic me...</p></li></ul>