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<p>INDIA'S NEIGHBOURHOOD</p> <p>THE ARMIES OF SOUTH ASIA</p> <p>INDIA'S NEIGHBOURHOOD</p> <p>THE ARMIES OF SOUTH ASIA</p> <p>Editor</p> <p>Vishal Chandra</p> <p>INSTITUTE FOR DEFENCE STUDIES &amp; ANALYSES NEW DELHI</p> <p>PENTAGON PRESS</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia / Vishal Chandra (Ed) First Published in 2013 Copyright Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, New Delhi ISBN 978-81-8274-706-7 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without first obtaining written permission of the copyright owner. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this book are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses, or the Government of India. Published by PENTAGON PRESS 206, Peacock Lane, Shahpur Jat, New Delhi-110049 Phones: 011-64706243, 26491568 Telefax: 011-26490600 email: rajan@pentagonpress.in website: www.pentagonpress.in In association with Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses No. 1, Development Enclave, New Delhi-110010 Phone: +91-11-26717983 Printed at Syndicate Binders, A-20, Hosiery Complex, Phase II, Noida-201305</p> <p>ContentsForeword About the Contributors Acknowledgements Abbreviations List of Tables and Figures Introduction Chapter One Afghanistans National Army: Expectations and ScepticismVishal Chandra</p> <p>vii ix xi xiii xix xxi 1</p> <p>Chapter Two Bangladesh Army: Evolution, Structure, Threat Perception, and its RoleSmruti S. Pattanaik</p> <p>27</p> <p>Chapter Three The Royal Bhutan ArmyAnand Kumar</p> <p>69</p> <p>Chapter Four Maldives Security Dilemma and its National Defence ForceAlok Bansal</p> <p>82</p> <p>Chapter Five The Nepal Army at the CrossroadsNihar Nayak</p> <p>97</p> <p>vi</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia</p> <p>Chapter Six The Army of Pakistan: Dominant by DefaultAshok K. Behuria and Sumita Kumar</p> <p>121</p> <p>Chapter Seven Defenders of the Nation: Evolution and Role of the Sri Lankan ArmyM. Mayilvaganan</p> <p>145</p> <p>Index</p> <p>163</p> <p>Abbreviations</p> <p>vii</p> <p>Foreword</p> <p>Armies play a significant role in the maintenance of unity and integrity of states. However, their role, reputation, status and importance varies from state to state, depending upon the nature of political system, strength of the civil society and the institutions of state, intensity of popular participation in the affairs of the state, and above all, the attitude as well as ambitions of the leadership of the armed forces. In advanced democratic states, the armies usually function under civilian control and help consolidate the process of nation and state-building. In many post-colonial statesstruggling with the process of democratisationon the contrary, the civil-military relations have often been strained and the role of the army has been rather controversial. The armies, in some of these societies, have usurped power from civilian authorities and impaired the process of socio-political and economic growth and development. In South Asia, the post-colonial record of the armies has been rather mixed. While the armies of India, Sri Lanka, Nepal and Bhutan have largely stayed under civilian control, in Pakistan, Bangladesh and to a certain extent in Afghanistan, the armies have staged coups, derailed democratic experiments and played their role as willing accomplices in propping up authoritarian systems of governance. The ideas, ideologies and aspirations guiding the functioning of such assertive armies have posed serious challenges to security at the regional level. In certain cases, the armies have perpetuated threat perceptions about their neighbours to legitimise their hold on power. This has had grave implications for inter-state relations and regional security. In the South Asian context, therefore, it was felt necessary to study the armies of different countries in the immediate neighbourhood of India in detail, taking into account their origin, evolution, doctrinal orientation,</p> <p>viii</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia</p> <p>organisational principles, relationship with civilian institutions, and their future trajectories. Given the tendency in the countries in the neighbourhood to define their security in relation to Indias preponderance, and the temptation of the elites in these countries to project India as a hegemonic and interventionist power, such a study would be definitely useful for strategic analysts and policy makers in India. Keeping this in mind, the scholars in the South Asia Centre at the IDSA have put together this volume under the IDSA neighbourhood studies programme. I commend their efforts and especially that of Vishal Chandra who has conceptualised and edited this volume with adequate care and attention. I hope this study will be well-received in the wider strategic community in India and abroad. October 2012 New Delhi Arvind Gupta Director General, IDSA</p> <p>Abbreviations</p> <p>ix</p> <p>About the ContributorsDr. Arvind Gupta is Director General, Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi, India. Mr. Vishal Chandra is Associate Fellow at IDSA. Dr. Smruti S. Pattanaik is Research Fellow at IDSA. Dr. Anand Kumar is Associate Fellow at IDSA. Capt. (IN) Alok Bansal is currently Senior Fellow at the Centre for Land Warfare Studies (CLAWS), New Delhi. He was Member (Navy) at IDSA. Dr. Nihar Nayak is Associate Fellow at IDSA. Dr. Ashok K. Behuria is Research Fellow and Coordinator of the South Asia Centre at IDSA. Ms. Sumita Kumar is Senior Research Associate at IDSA. Dr. M. Mayilvaganan is Assistant Professor at the National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS), Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Formerly Associate Fellow at IDSA.</p> <p>AcknowledgementsThis study would not have been possible without the support, guidance and encouragement of Dr. Arvind Gupta, the Director General of the Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA). Despite his many pressing engagements, he would always make himself available whenever his personal attention and advice was requested, especially as I was finalising the manuscript of this book. I am grateful to him for all his assistance, attention and encouragement. I would also like to specially acknowledge the contribution of Dr. Ashok K. Behuria, Coordinator of the South Asia Centre at IDSA, in the successful completion of this book project. His vast scholarship on South Asian affairs proved to be an asset as I requested him to peruse through the final manuscript of this book. I would like to express my personal gratitude to him for his full cooperation and support. I would be failing in my duty if I do not acknowledge the contribution of anonymous external reviewers who offered their valuable inputs on the draft of the chapters. All seven chapters were reviewed by two subject experts and their inputs have been taken into consideration by individual authors while finalising their respective chapters. I would also like to thank Mr. Vivek Kaushik, the Assistant Editor, who ensured timely refereeing and copy-editing of the draft chapters. I must also place my special thanks to the publisher of this book, Pentagon Press, for bringing out this edited volume in a relatively short time. As editor, it is also my pleasant duty to personally thank my colleagues from the South Asia Centre who contributed chapters for this book, Dr. Ashok K. Behuria, Ms. Sumita Kumar, Dr. Smruti S. Pattanaik, Dr. Anand Kumar, Dr. Nihar Nayak, and our former colleagues, Capt. (IN) Alok Bansal and Dr. M. Mayilvaganan. October 2012 Vishal Chandra</p> <p>AbbreviationsAAF AG AFD AIA AIT ALP ANA ANAAC ANAP ANATC ANNISU-R ANP ANSF APC APCSS APEC APPF ARSIC ARTD ASFF ATA ATC ATS AWACS BAG BATT BBC Afghan Air Force Adjutant General Armed Forces Division Afghan Interim Administration Advanced Individual Training Afghan Local Police Afghan National Army Afghan National Army Air Corps Afghan National Auxiliary Police Afghan National Army Training Command All Nepal National Independent Students UnionRevolutionary Afghan National Police Afghan National Security Forces Armoured Personnel Carrier Asia Pacific Center for Strategic Studies Army Physical Education Centre Afghan Public Protection Force Afghan Regional Security Integration Command Army Recruit Training Depot Afghan Security Forces Fund Afghan Transitional Administration Army Training Centre Army Training School Airborne Warning and Control System Budget Activity Group British Army Training Team British Broadcasting Corporation</p> <p>xiv</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia</p> <p>BDGIE BDR BICS BIPSOT BMW BNP BSF CA CARAT CARs CCMR CDF CEITS CENTCOM CENTO CFC-A CGSC CHT CJTF CLS CMC COAS COGS COS CPC CPN-Maoist CRS CSF CSTC-A CT CTS CTT CVF</p> <p>Bangladesh Government-in-Exile Bangladesh Rifles Bangladesh Islami Chhatra Shibir Bangladesh Institute of Peace Support Operation Training Band &amp; Music Wing Bangladesh Nationalist Party Border Security Force Constituent Assembly Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training Central Asian Republics Center for Civil Military Relations Ceylon Defence Force Communication, Electronics and Information Technology Service US Central Command Central Treaty Organisation (also often referred to as Central Eastern Treaty Organisation) Combined Forces Command - Afghanistan Command and General Staff College Chittagong Hill Tracts Combined Joint Task Force Chief of Logistics Staff Central Military Commission Chief of Army Staff Chief of General Staff Chief of Staff Communist Party of China Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist Congressional Research Service Coalition Support Fund Combined Security Transition Command - Afghanistan Counter Terrorism Combat Training School Combat Trekker Team Ceylon Volunteer Force</p> <p>Abbreviations</p> <p>xv</p> <p>DDC DDP DDR DIAG DITE DoD DPR DPT DSCSC EME ETT EEZ EU EUPOL FATA FMF FRS GAO GCE GPOI GWOT HMI HuM IBFH IC IG IGT&amp;E IJC IMA IMET IMTRAT IOJ IPCC IPKF</p> <p>Directorate of Development &amp; Construction Directorate of Defence Production Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Disbandment of Illegal Armed Groups Defence Institute for Training and Education (Maldives) US Department of Defense Directorate of Public Relations Druk Phuensum Tshogpa Defence Services Command and Staff College Electrical and Mechanical Engineers Embedded Training Team Exclusive Economic Zone European Union European Union Police Federally Administered Tribal Areas Foreign Military Financing Fire &amp; Rescue Service Government Accountability Office General Certificate of Education Global Peace Operations Initiative Global War on Terrorism Himalayan Mountaineering Institute Harkat-ul Mujahideen Indo-Bhutan Friendship Hospital Interim Constitution Inspector General Inspector General of Training and Evaluation ISAF Joint Command Indian Military Academy International Military Education and Training Indian Military Training Team Islami Oikya Jote International Panel on Climate Change Indian Peace Keeping Force</p> <p>xvi</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia</p> <p>IPSOT-SL ISAF ISI ITC ITLOS JCO JeM JIB JMB JMJB JRB JVP KLO KMTC LeT LoC LTS LTTE MAT MGO MNDF MoU MS MSTS NA NAB NATO NCC NCO NCOTS NDC NDFB NDU NGO</p> <p>Institute of Peacekeeping Support Operations Training Sri Lanka International Security Assistance Force Inter Services Intelligence Infantry Training Centre International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea Junior Commissioned Officer Jaish-e Mohammad Jamaat-e Islami Bangladesh Jamaat-ul Mujahideen Bangladesh Jagrata Muslim Janata Bangladesh Jatiyo Rakkhi Bahini Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna Kamtapur Liberation Organisation Kabul Military Training Center Lashkar-e-Taiba Line of Control Language Training School Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Military Advisory Team Master General of Ordnance Maldives National Defence Force Memorandum of Understanding Military Secretary/Medical Service Marksman Sniper Training School Nepal Army National Accountability Bureau North Atlantic Treaty Organisation National Cadet Corps Non Commissioned Officer Non Commissioned Officer Training School National Defence College National Democratic Front of Bodoland National Defence University Non Governmental Organisation</p> <p>Abbreviations</p> <p>xvii</p> <p>NMAA NRB NRP NSS NSSG NTM-A NWFP OCC OMCA OMLT OSCA PAF PAT PBAS PBCP PBSP PCJSS PIA PLA PLOTE PML-N PMS-Q PN PoK PPIMS PPP PRC PSO QMG QRF RBA RBI RBP RC RCAC</p> <p>National Military Academy of Afghanistan National Reconstruction Bureau Nepalese Rupee National Security Service Naval Special Service Group NATO Training Mission - Afghanistan North-West Frontier Province Operation Coordination Centre Office of Military Cooperation Afghanistan Operational Mentoring and Liaison Team Office of Security Cooperation-Afghanistan Pakistan Air Force Police Advisory Team Programme Budget Accounting System Purba Banglar Communist Party Purba Banglar Sarabahara Party Parbotiya Chattogram Jana Sanghati Samiti Pakistan International Airlines Peoples Liberation Army Peoples Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam Pakistan Muslim League - Nawaz Pakistan Muslim League - Quaid-e-Azam Pakistan Navy Pakistan occupied Kashmir Project Planning, Implementation and Maintenance Service Pakistan Peoples Party Peoples Republic of China Principal Staff Officer Quartermaster General Quick Reaction Force Royal Bhutan Army Reserve Bank of India Royal Bhutan Police Regional Command Regional Corps Advisory Command</p> <p>xviii</p> <p>India's Neighbourhood: The Armies of South Asia</p> <p>RDF RMB RNA RPP Rs SAARC SAC SEATO SF SLA SLMA SOFA SPG TAFII Tk TS UAE UAV UCPN-Maoist ULFA UN UNCLOS UNCTAD UNDP UNESCAP UNMIN UPDF US USPACOM VFTS WASA WLDMS YCL</p> <p>Rapid Deployment Force Renminbi Royal Nepal Army Rastriya Prajatantra Party Rupees South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation State Affairs Committee South East Asia Treaty Organisation Special Forces Sri Lankan Army Sri Lanka Military Academy Status of Forces Agreement Special Protection Group Task Force Anti Illicit Immigration Taka (Bangladeshi currency) Transport Service United Arab Emirates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Unified Communist Party of Nepal - Maoist United Liberation Front of Assam United Nations United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Development Programme United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific United Nations Mission in Nepal United Peoples Democratic Front United States (of America) United States Pacific Command Volunteer Force Training School Water and Sewerage Authority Wangchuk Lo Dzong Military School Young Communist League</p> <p>Introduction</p> <p>xix</p> <p>List of Tables and FiguresChapter 1 Table 1 Size of Afghan National Security Forces on Duty, 2003-12 Chapter 2 Fig. 1 Trends in Budget Allocation: 2002-09 Chapter Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 5 State of Castes/Ethnic Inclusion in Nepalese Army Ethnic Affiliation of Senior Army Officers Military Expenditure of Nepal since 1996 108-09 109 110 130 13...</p>