early revolts against spain
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EARLY REVOLTS AGAINST SPAINAiman B. Arabain
Table Of Contents
Tondo Conspiracy Gabriela Silang Revolt Hermano Pule Revolt Francisco Dagohoy Revolt Juan Sumoroy Revolt Palaris Revolt Francisco Maniago Revolt
Marcelo H. Del Pilar Graciano Lopez Jaena Dr. Jose Rizal Antonio Luna Mariano Ponce Jose Maria Panganiban Pedro Paterno Isabelo de los Reyes Dominador Gomez Joe Alejandro
The Conspiracy of the Maharlikas, also referred to as the Revolt of the Lakans or the Tondo Conspiracy of 1587-1588 was a plot against Spanish colonial rule by the Tagalog andCapampangan noblemen, or datus, of Manila and some towns of Bulacan and Pampanga, in thePhilippines. It was led by Agustn de Legazpi, grandson of Martin Pangan conquistador Miguel Lpez de Legazpi, nephew of Rajah Lakandula, and his first cousin,. The datus swore to rise up in arms by anointing their necks with a split egg. The uprising failed when they were betrayed to the Spanish authorities by Antonio Surabao (Susabau) of Calamianes. The mastermind of the plot was Agustn de Legazpi; grandson of conquistador Miguel Lpez de Legazpi, nephew of Rajah Lakandula and son-in-law of sultan Bolkieh of Brunei; whose first cousin was Martin Pangan, the gobernadorcillo of Tondo. Besides the two, the other leaders were Magat Salamat, son of Rajah Lakandula and the crown-prince of Tondo; Juan Banal, another Tondo prince and Salmats brother-in-law; Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambacar, brothers of Agustn de Legazpi; Pedro Balingit, the lord of Pandacan; Felipe Salonga, the lord of Polo; Dionisio Capolo (Kapulong), the lord of Candaba and brother of Felipe Salonga; Juan Basi, the lord of Taguig; Esteban Taes (Tasi), the lord of Bulacan; Felipe Salalila, the lord of Misil; Agustn Manuguit, son of Felipe Salalila; Luis Amanicaloa, another prince of Tondo; Felipe Amarlangagui, the commanderand-chief of Caranglan; Omaghicon, the Minister of Navotas and Pitongatan (Pitong Gatang), another prince of Tondo.
Gabriela Silang Revolt
Arguably one of the most famous revolts in Philippine history is the Silang Revolt from 1762 to 1763, led by the couple of Diego and Gabriela Silang. Unlike the other revolts, this revolt took place during the British invasion of Manila. On December 14, 1762, Diego Silang declared the independence of Ilocandia, naming the state "Free Ilocos" and proclaimed Vigan the capital of this newly-independent state. The British heard about this revolt in Manila and even asked the help of Silang in fighting the Spanish. However, Silang was killed on May 28, 1763 by Miguel Vicos, a friend of Silang. The Spanish authorities paid for his murder, leading to his death in the arms of his wife, Gabriela. She continued her husband's struggle, earning the title "Joan of Arc of the Ilocos" because of her many victories in battle. The battles of the Silang revolt are a prime example of the use ofdivide et impera, since Spanish troops largely used Kampampangan soldiers to fight the Ilocanos. Eventually, the revolt ended with the defeat of the Ilocanos. Gabriela Silang was executed by Spanish authorities in Vigan on September 10, 1763.
Hermano Pule Revolt
One of the most famous religious revolts is the Pule Revolt, more formally known as the Religious Revolt of Hermano Pule. Undertaken between June 1840 and November 1841, this revolt was led by Apolinario de la Cruz, otherwise known as "Hermano Pule". De la Cruz started his own religious order, the Confraternity of Saint Joseph (Spanish: Confradia de San Jos) in Lucban, located in the present-day province of Quezon (then called Tayabas), in June of 1840. However, there were two types of priests in the Philippines then: secular priests, or parish priests, which were usually Filipino, and religious priests, or convent priests, which were usually Spanish. Due to the concentration of Spanish religious power and authority in the alreadyestablished religious orders (the Augustinians, Jesuits and Franciscans to name a few) and the concept that Filipino priests should only stay in the church and not the convent and vice-versa (although this was not always followed), the Spanish government banned the new order, especially due to its deviation from original Catholic rituals and teachings, such as prayers and rituals suited for Filipinos.
However, thousands of people in Tayabas, Batangas, Laguna and even Manila already joined. Because of this, the Spanish government sent in troops to forcibly break up the order, forcing De la Cruz and his followers to rise in armed revolt in self-defense. Many bloody battles were fought with 3 the order's last stand in Mount San Cristobal, near Mount Banahaw, in October of 1841. The Spaniards eventually won, and Apolinario de la Cruz was executed on November 4, 1841 in the then-provincial capital, Tayabas. It did not end there, though. Many members of the Spanish armed forces' Tayabas regiment, based in Malate in Manila, had relatives that were members of the order, of which many of those relatives were also killed in the ensuing violence. On January 20, 1843, the regiment, led by Sergeant Irineo Samaniego, rose in mutiny, eventually capturing Fort Santiago in Intramuros. The next day, however, the gates of Fort Santiago were opened by loyalist soldiers. After a bloody battle, the mutineers were defeated by loyalist troops, resulting in the execution of Samaniego and 81 of his followers the same day.
Francisco Dagohoy Revolt
In 1744 in what is now the province of Bohol, what is known today as the Dagohoy Revolt was undertaken by Francisco Dagohoy and some of his followers. This revolt is unique since it is the only Philippine revolt completely related to matters of religious customs. After a duel in which Dagohoy's brother died, the local parish priest refused to give his brother a proper 4 Christian burial, since dueling is a mortal sin. The refusal of the priest to give his brother a proper Christian burial eventually led to the longest revolt ever held in Philippine history: 85 years. It also led to the establishment of a free Boholano government. Twenty governors-general, from Juan Arrechederra to Manuel Ricafort Palacn y Ararca, failed to stop the revolt. Ricafort himself sent a force of 2,200 troops to Bohol, which was defeated by Dagohoy's followers. Another attack, also sent by Ricafort in 1828 and 1829, failed as well. Dagohoy died two years before the revolt ended, though, which led to the end of the revolt in 1829. Some 19,000 survivors were granted pardon and were eventually allowed to live in new Boholano villages: namely, the present-day towns of Balilihan, Batuan, Bilar (Vilar), Catigbian and Sevilla (Cabulao).
Juan Sumoroy Revolt
Sumuroy Revolt(1649-50) In what is today the town of Palapag in Northern Samar, Juan Ponce Sumuroy, a Waray, and some of his followers rose in arms on June 1, 1649 over the polo system being undertaken in Samar. This is known as the Sumuroy Revolt, named after Juan Ponce Sumuroy. The government in Manila directed that all natives subject to the polo are not to be sent to places distant from their hometowns to do their polo. However, under orders of the various townalcaldes,5.
the revolt. The local parish priest of Palapag was murdered and the revolt eventually spread to Mindanao, Bicol and the rest of the Visayas, especially in places such as Cebu, Masbate, Camiguin, Zamboanga, Albay, Camarines and parts of northern Mindanao, such as Surigao. A free government was also established in the mountains of Samar. The defeat, capture and execution of Sumuroy in June 1650 led to the end of the revolt. The first government established by the Americans in the Philippines followed the surrender of Manila in August 1898. It was a military government. During the duration of the war, the Philippines was ruled by the president of the United States in his capacity as commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces. In its brief existence, from 1898 to 1901, the military government established a supreme court composed of six Filipinos and three Americans. The first chief justice was Cayetano Arellano. Towns and provincial governments were organized and elections for local officials held. Also introduced was the public school system in the Philippines, with English being taught for the first time; American soldiers acted as the first English teachers. On March 2, 1901, the military government in the Philippines ceased to exist when the United States Congress enacted the Army Appropriations Act. This law carried the Spooner Amendment, which removed from the United States president the final authority to govern the Philippines. This power was to be exercised by the United States Congress through the president. As a result, a civil government was established in the Philippines and inaugurated on July 4, 1901. Judge William H. Taft was the first civil governor. (In 1905, the title was changed to governor general).
6. The Palaris Revolt of 1762-1765 was led by Juan de la Cruz Palaris, also known as Pantaleon Perez, of Binalatongan (now San Carlos City), Philippines. He was the son to Tomas Perez, a cabeza de barangay. He was born in Barrio Coliling, San Carlos City, Pangasinan, in the year 1733, third in a family of five, with three brothers and one sister. The first two elder brothers died when they were yet small and the youngest brother lived to marry yet. While the sister next to him grew into a beautiful but manly woman who used to kill a wild boar single handedly. She was finally killed in her own game, that is, she was killed and devoured by the wild boars. It was not known whether Pantaleon Perez was able to enter to school during his lifetime. The sources on this matter are silent, but he must have acquired some form of practical education while he was in Manila because when he returned to San C