revolutions! revolts! new governments! 1750-1914

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  • Revolutions! Revolts! New Governments!1750-1914

  • Enlightenment RevolutionsCommonalities? Contrasts?

  • The Enlightenment IdealsThe two-prong rallying cry?Origins?Spread?Ramifications?

  • The American Revolution (1776)Spurred by Lockes ideas of life, liberty, and private property.Changed it to be life, liberty, and the pursuit of happinessInstituted by the emergent middle class

  • The French Revolution (1789)Corruption of absolute monarchsThe Old Regime (ancien regime) social classes into 3 estates:1st: clergy, 1% of population, controlled 10%of land, paid no taxes2nd: landed nobility, 2% of population, controlled 20% of land, minimal taxes3rd: remainder of French citizenry: 97% of population; merchants, laborers, peasants; heavily taxed: leaders=artisans & merchants (bourgeoisie)

  • Recipe for disasterExtravagance of Louis XVI nearly bankrupted FranceMay 1789, forced meeting of the Estates-General (French assembly)1st time in 175 yearsTraditionally, each estate = 1 voteThe bourgeoisie called for a change: 1 vote per delegatedenied

  • The National Assembly is formedThe 3rd Estate formed the National Assembly due to denialMet in a tennis court where pledged to write a new constitution (Tennis Court Oath)New govt: constitutional monarchy1791constitution completed, Legislative Assembly formedformed 3 factions w/in

  • Revolution Begins!Storming of the Bastille, July 14, 1789The Great Fear begins, with the burning of feudal manorsOctober 1789, Parisian women riot over price of bread; demand Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette leave Versailles and go to Paris

  • Declaration of Rights of ManIssued by National Assembly, 1789All men are born equalAll enjoy the natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppressionNo reference to rights of women; Olympe de Gouges (1791) wrote Declaration of Rights of Women; not accepted; guillotined later

  • Fall of Monarchy1792, Legislative Assembly dissolved, establishing a National ConventionAbolished the limited monarchyEstablished a republic, September 1792Male citizens given right to voteControlled by the Jacobins, inc. Marat and DantonJanuary 1793, executed Louis XVI

  • Reign of TerrorMaximilien Robespierre, head of Committee of Public SafetyExecuted alleged enemies of the republicMarie AntoinetteMarat and Danton, former leaders of the JacobinsEnded in 1794 w/ guillotining of Robespierre1795-1799: The Directory

  • Napoleons Rise to PowerChosen to lead the army, November 1799The next day, staged a coup detat & became dictatorEstablished peace treaties w/ the 2nd Coalition (GB, Austria, Russia)National bank; equalized taxes; public school systemNapoleonic Code: equality of all adult men patriarchal family no property rights of women restricted freedoms of press & speech reinstated slavery in the Caribbean

  • Fall of Napoleon1812, his empire controlled most of Europe3 fatal errors:Blockade against Great Britain (1806)Peninsular War against Spain(1808-1813)Invasion of Russia in winter of 18121814, forced to abdicate throne to ElbaMarch 1815, returned and reestablished powerBattle of Waterloo, June 1815, banished to St. Helena

  • Congress of Vienna, 1815Austria, Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, & France met in Vienna to create stability in EuropeTo guard against future revolutions, set up a series of alliances requiring nations to come to aid each other lest war erupt

  • Goals and Action of the Congress of Vienna:GoalsEstablish lasting peace & stabilityPrevent future French aggressionRestore balance of powerRestore royal families to their thronesActionsFormed the Kingdom of the NetherlandsGerman ConfederationIndependence of Switzerland recognizedRequired France to return Napoleons conquered areas, but kept France a power

  • Results of the Congress of ViennaConservatives regain governmental controlColonial Latin American governments declared their independencePower of France diminished; power of Great Britain and Prussia increasedEncouraged growth of nationalism

  • The Haitian Revolution, 17911st Latin American territory to assert independence= Fr. Colony, Saint DominiquePopulation composed primarily of African slaves, controlled tightly by minority slaveholders90% of population was slaves

  • Vive la revolucion!August 1791, African priest called for revolution100,000 slaves revoltedToussaint LOuverture emerged as a leaderNapoleon sent 20,000 troops to squelch the revolt1802, lured onto French ship to sign an agreement for independence, and taken to France against his willDied in France, 1803

  • Haiti is bornDessalines continued the struggleHaiti declared its independence, January 1,1804Dessalines declared self dictator for life1st colony in which slaves gained freedom from Europeans

  • Latin American RevolutionsAre they based on Enlightenment ideals?

  • Social Classes in Latin AmericaRigidly stratifiedPeninsulares, creoles, mestizos, Africans & mulattos, Indians1808, Napoleon replaced Spanish king w/ his brono Creole or Peninsular loyalty to the crown1810 rebellion emerged

  • Independence for Spanish coloniesLeaders of S.A. independence:Simon Bolivar, creole from VenezuelaJose de San Martin, from ArgentinaSimon Bolivar, the Liberator

  • Simon BolivarStudied Enlightenment philosophiesEducated, visited Europe & the United States of AmericaDreamed of creating a strong nation, called Gran Colombia1821, led Venezuela to independenceWent to Ecuador, met w/ San Martin1816, achieved Argentine independenceFreed Chile in 18181822, in command of revolutionary forcesBattle of Ayacucho, December 1824, remaining Spanish colonies to independence

  • Simon Bolivars hopesWanted greater prosperity for Latin America after independenceReality:Destruction of cities, fieldsEconomic devastation due to trade disruptionGran Colombia & United Provinces of Central America divided into smaller national states w/in a few yearsContinual Creole rule (Evo Morales, Bolivia)

  • Independence for MexicoInitiated by mestizos, rather than the creoleSeptember 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo: encouraged rebellion against SpainMarch of mestizos & Indians on Mexico City; creole class (& Spanish) defeated Hidalgo in 1811Father Jose Maria Morelos took over revolution until defeated in 18151821 Mexico achieved independence from Spain, Treaty of Cordoba

  • The Mexican RevolutionAntonio Lopez de Santa Anna served as president 4 timesLost Texas & a border dispute with the USTreaty of Guadalupe (1848) ended Mexican WarBenito Juarez (Indian) came to power in mid-19th C (deposed by Santa Anna in 1853)

  • Benito JuarezFirst term:Redistributed landIncreased educational opportunitiesMaintained sep of church & stateReturned to power in 1861French takeover of Mexico in 1862: Austrian archduke Maximilian ruled as puppet emperor1867, resumed presidency:Encouraged foreign tradeConstruction of railroads

  • Porfirio Diaz1876, rose to powerAuthoritarian ruler of Indian descentBuilt banks & railroads; encouraged foreign investmentLand distributed unevenly; industrial workers had low wages & poor working conditionsFormation of new political parties

  • Beginnings and End of RevolutionFrancisco Madero (elite class), educated in US & France; believed in democracyExiled to US by Diaz, called for revolutionLeaders: Emiliano Zapata & Francisco Pancho Villa

  • More Mex. RevolutionMarked by years of frequent assassinations and leadership changesEnded with murder of Zapata in 1919, by the hands of Carranza, one of the leaders of the revolution

  • Effects of the Mexican RevolutionRevised Mexican constitutionPromoted:Land reformsWorkers rightsEducationLegal rights granted to women (such as initiating lawsuits)New political party, Institutional Revolutionary Party, came to power in 1929, dominated 20th Century

  • Colonial Latin America, 1500-1750

  • The World in 1914

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