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THEROOTSOFTHEFILIPINONATION byOnofreD.Corpuz Chapter3 CHRISTIANREVOLTS, MUSLIMRAIDSManypeopleswereconquered,becausetheydidnotknowtheir ownstrengthuntiltheyfoundthattheyweresubdued. AnAugustinianfriarontheChristianrevoltsofthe1660s. Thelossofourharvestsforoneyearisasmallpricetopayfor liberty.SultanKudaratofMaguindanao.1667

TheinitialoppositiontotheSpaniardswastheresistancetotheconquest. Wheretheconquistadorswereconcentratedinforce,astheywereinCebu over15651568,theresistingbarangaysfelleasily,sothattheconquestofthe surrounding area was effected early. The same process worked out in the Manila region beginning in 1571. In the outlying and hinterland area of Luzon,wheretheSpanishpresencewasintheformofsmallgroupsinthe cabeceratowns,theconquesttookverymuchlonger,aswesawintheTuy valleyandwillseeagainintheCagayanareainnorthernLuzon. Thenextphaseoftheresistancetooktheformofrevoltsanduprisings against the regime. Whether the barangays submitted to the Spaniards meekly, or welcomed them in friendship, or resisted with arms and were overcomebyforce,thecolonialregimeweigheddownheavilyuponthemall. ThegiftsofHispanicChristianityandgovernmentthatwerebroughtbythe Spaniardswereaheavycross,andproducedaharvestofuprisings. InthesouthernislandstheestablishmentofFilipinoswasachallengeto the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao. The latter not only met the Christianchallenge.Theybroughtthewartotheenemyasifthewatersof theVisayasweretheirroadways;theirraidingfleetswouldswoopdownon thenewChristianpueblos,drawnbytheprizeofmorecaptives,andbythe goldandsilverornamentsinthechurchesoftheSpanishfriars.

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THEROOTSOFTHEFILIPINONATION byOnofreD.Corpuz TheChristianUprisings Thefirstoutbreaksunderthenewregimewerethepeople'sreactionsto the brutish cruelty of the tribute collections. The barangays that had submittedroseinarms.Buttheirrevoltswerebornofdespairandwantingin concert.Afriaraccountof theVisayanrevoltsofthelate1640snotesthat uprisings broke out in the provinces that were most subjugated and had nevertestedthekeennessofourarms;fortheyhadyieldedtotheechoesof our trumpets, receiving our troops in peace. In other words, the people foughtaftertheyhadgivenuptheirliberty. Writtenreferencestotheearlyoutbreaksaresketchy.Thefriarchronicles werestillfewanddealtwiththeconcernsofthereligiousordersingetting themselvesestablished,orwiththearrivalsandassignmentsoffriarsand priests. But there were occasional indications of these outbreaks. For instance,theSpanishkinginstructedthenewgovernorgeneralin1589to undertake a pacification campaign. The king was informed that this was requiredevenintheverydistrictswheretheSpaniardsliveandtravel,for allthenativesareinrevoltand[are]unsubdued....PardodeTaveraalso notesthatrevoltshadtakenplaceearlier,in1583andagainin1585,among theTagalogsandPampangos.Fulleraccountsoftheearlyuprisingsappear morefrequentlyfromthe1590sonwards.1 There was a very interesting plot in the latter 1580s. It is interesting partlybecausewecomeacrossthenamesofFilipinosinLuzonalmostforthe firsttimesincetheconquestbegan.Itwasequallynoteworthybecausethe plotwasaconspiracyofformerbarangaydatus.Tothemitwasnotonlythe harshnessoftheregimethathadbecomeintolerable.Itwasalsothelossof their old status and the freedom and privileges that went with it. This hauntedthemandconfusedthem,andfromthisahatredbuiltandgrewup againsttheauthorsoftheirdespair.Theycontainedtheirsenseoflossand oppressionpatiently,initiallyreposingtrustintheSpanishking,butinthe endtheystakedeverythingtowardsrebellionanddeath,becausetheregime couldnotgivethemjustice.

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THEROOTSOFTHEFILIPINONATION byOnofreD.Corpuz AshipwastoleaveManilaforNuevaEspaaforthe1582voyage.Several principalesofthevillagesaroundManilacalledonthebishopofFilipinason 15June1582.Theymadeadepositionwhichtheyaskedthelattertoforward totheSpanishking,intimefortheship'ssailing.Someofthesechiefswere: Luis Amanicalao, Martin Panga, Gabriel Luanbacar, Juan Bautangad, Francisca[sic]Saygan,Salalila,Calao,andAmarlenguaguay.(Atleastthree ofthenamesaregarbledinoursource.)TheywerechiefsfromTondoand Maysilo. The last three are described as nonChristian they were presumablynativeconvertstoIslamwhohadnotembracedthenewreligion; theothershadconvertedandcarriedChristiannames. ThebishopwrotetheSpanishkingon20Juneaboutthecall.Hereported that the chiefs had asked him to make report of their grievances. These grievances,saidthebishop,confirmedhisotherreportsaboutthecrueltyand oppressionsufferedbythenatives.Afterthefirstvisithehadinformedhis callers to decide what they wished reported; on the same day, some principalesandaboutfortyotherpeoplehadcalledagain.Withoutdoubt, thebishopwrites,itwouldbreakyourMajesty'sheartifyoucouldseethem astheyare,andhowpitiablearetheirappearanceandthethingsthatthey relate. Otherchiefs,uponlearningofthevisits,alsocalledonthebishop.Onthe samedaythathewrotehisletteragroupoftentotwelvechiefsfromthe village of Mauban went to the bishop; they were all nonChristians; they askedhimtoincludetheircomplaintsinhisreport.Thebishopassuredthe Spanishkingthathedidnotadmittheexistenceofabusesotherthanthose specifiedbytheearlierchiefs.Hadhedoneotherwise,hesaid,itwouldmake adisturbanceinthisland,shouldtheyallcomeheretocomplain. Thegrievancesofthechiefswhocalledonthe15thJunearefamiliarby now.Thealcaldesboughtupthepeople'sriceandotherproduceatlowprices, andthensoldthembackdear.Theyimpressedthepeopleasrowersatall times;afteramonthasoarsmenthelatterwouldberequiredtogetreadyfor anotherwithout having been. paidwages. Yet theother peopleleft in the puebloswouldbemadetopaythewagesthatweresupposedtohavebeen ChristianRevolts,MuslimRaids 3

THEROOTSOFTHEFILIPINONATION byOnofreD.Corpuz paidtotherowers.Manyofthechiefs'peoplehadlefttheirvillages,butthe chiefswouldbemadetopaythetributesofthosewhohadleft,andevenof thoseweredead.Whentheyfailedtopaytheywouldbeplacedinthestocks andflogged. There were other grievances. If the common people complained to the alcaldestheywerealsoplacedinthestocksorinprison.Wheninjail,they (thecommoners)hadtopayforthecostsoftheirmaintenance.Asaresultof all their hardships they all wished to leave, or at least go to a private encomienda. (This was because much of the Manila area was a royal encomienda,andthealcaldewastheking'stributecollector.) Whathappenedtotheshipcarrying thebishop'sreporttotheSpanish kingisnotknown,andwedonotreadaboutthechiefsagainuntilfiveyears later. ThevillageofTondo,itwillberecalled,wassituatedatthemouthofthe PasigRiver,onthenorthbankjustoppositetheSpanishcity.TheManila area was still fairly small in the latter 1580s. In the pueblos outside the walls,includingTondo,livedabout7,500people,ofwhomsome3,000were underprivateencomienderos,therestbeinginroyalencomiendas.Although Spanish Manila had been founded in 1572 and enjoyed the title DistinguishedandEverLoyalCity,itsgrowthwasslow.Ithadonlyeighty Spanishcitizensin1588,thatis,excepttheclergyinchurches,hospitalsand monasteries,someofthemlocatedoutsidethewalls.Fiftyofthemenhad Spanishwives;someoftheothersweremarriedtonativewomen.Inaddition totheclergyandcitizens,therewereusuallysome200Spanishsoldiersin thearea,becauseManilawasalsoafort.Thesoldiersweregenerallyalow classsort,poorandlivingonalms;quarteredinthehousesofthecitizensand others in the nearby houses of natives. At this time only twenty Chinese trading ships were calling at Manila each year although, for two years running,somemerchantshadbeencomingfromJapan,Macao,Siam,and othercountries. ThenexttimewehearoftheTondochiefsisin1587,whenMartinPanga ChristianRevolts,MuslimRaids 4

THEROOTSOFTHEFILIPINONATION byOnofreD.Corpuz hadbecomegobernadorcillo.Unfortunately,hewasinjail.Togetherwithhim weretheformergobernadorcilloandPanga'scousinAgustinLegaspi;Gabriel Tuambasan (Luanbacar in the bishop's 1582 letter), who was Legaspi's brother;Tuambasan'ssonFranciscoActa;andPitongatan,anothermember of the Tondo principalia. From the regime's viewpoint, Panga and Tuambasan, both among the 1582 complainants, must have been troublemakers.Itisreportedthatwhiletheywereinprison,allthesechiefs pledgedhelptoeachother,toberenderedwheneverrequiredinthefuture. This was the beginning of the most ambitious and most haphazard conspiracyforarevoltduringthesixteenthcentury,oratanytimethereafter untiltheRevolutionof1896. Afterservingtimeinjail,PangawasexiledfromTondo,andhehadtogo toTambobong(themoderntownofMalabon).Theexilewasnotstringent. Tambobong was a nearby pueblo. Here Panga and Legaspi invited other principales for secret talks. The following chiefs attended the meetings, accompanied by their followers and servants: Agustin Manuguit and his fatherPhelipeSalalila,achieffromMaysilo;MagatSalamat,chiefofTondo and reportedly son of the old raja of Tondo; Pedro Bolinguit, chief from Pandacan; Geronimo Basi and Gabriel Tuambasan, both of Tondo and Legaspi's brothers; Luis Amanicalao and his son Calao,_both of Tondo; FranciscoActa,anotherchieffromTondo;Dionisio Capolo,chiefofCandaba (who was to escort the Isinay chief Ybarat to Manila in late 1591 see Chapter2),Capolo'sbrotherPhelipeSalonga,chiefofPolo;Amaghicon,chief ofNavotas;andPhelipeAmarlangagui,chiefofCatangalan. Somecharacteristicsofthechiefsinthisgroupareworthnoting.First, although most of them were of Tondo and its neighbor villages (Maysilo, Tambobong,andNavotas),somewerechiefsfromrelativelydistanttowns: CandabaandPolointheprovincesofPampangaandBulacan,andPandacan southofthePasig.Second,althoughitwasnowalmostagenerationsincethe fallofManila,someoftheprincipaleswereholdingoutagainstbaptism