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  • Intermodal Freight Transport

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  • Intermodal FreightTransport

    David Lowe FCILT


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  • Elsevier Butterworth-HeinemannLinacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP30 Corporate Drive, Burlington, MA 01803

    First published 2005

    Copyright 2005, David Lowe. All rights reserved

    The right of David Lowe to be identified as the author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988

    No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including photocopying or storing in anymedium by electronic means and whether or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication)without the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the provisions of the Copyright,Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road, London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holders written permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed to the publisher.

    Permissions may be sought directly from Elseviers Science and Technology Rights Department in Oxford, UK: phone: (44) (0) 1865 843830; fax: (44) (0) 1865 853333; e-mail: permissions@elsevier.co.uk. You may also complete your request on-line via the Elsevier homepage(http://www.elsevier.com), by selecting Customer Support and then Obtaining Permissions.

    British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

    ISBN 0 7506 5935 1

    Typeset by Charon Tec Pvt. Ltd, Chennai, Indiawww.charontec.comPrinted and bound in Great Britain

    For information on all Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemannpublications visit our website at http://books.elsevier.com

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  • Contents

    Front cover captions ix

    Dedication x

    Disclaimer xi

    List of illustrations xiii

    The Author xv

    Foreword xvii

    Acknowledgements xix

    Preface xxi

    1 What Is Intermodal Freight Transport? 11.1 The background to intermodalism 31.2 The impact of the Channel Tunnel 41.3 Freight transport growth 41.4 Definitions 61.5 Why intermodalism now? 111.6 The potential market for intermodal transport 121.7 The future for intermodal freighting 13

    2 UK and EU Policies for Intermodal Transport 152.1 UK Government policy 152.2 Intermodal policy in the EU 202.3 Chronology of reports and legislation 33

    3 Intermodal Developments in the UK 363.1 Euro-trade and the Channel Tunnel 373.2 The rail scene 373.3 Tall and long boxes: the new container revolution 423.4 Government grant aid 423.5 Commercial developments 433.6 Combined transport vehicles 493.7 Working time and fuel prices 51

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  • 4 Intermodal Transport in Europe 524.1 Euro-enlargement 524.2 IRU/UIC position statement on combined transport 534.3 Research and further action 564.4 The EUs Intermodality Task Force 564.5 Rail interoperability 574.6 Inland waterways 584.7 Current activities: an overview 584.8 Financial support 604.9 Operational developments 604.10 The way forward 60

    5 Intermodalism in North America and World Markets 625.1 North America 625.2 Canada 675.3 The Baltic States 675.4 Asia 685.5 The Middle East 685.6 Australia 69

    6 The Road Haulage Role in Intermodalism 716.1 Lorry sizes and weights for intermodal operations 726.2 Operator licensing, community authorizations, and professional competence 736.3 Exhaust emissions, noise limits, and energy consumption 736.4 Limits on driver working times 746.5 Safety law for carrying containers and working in docks 766.6 Safety in docks 776.7 Lorry Road User Charging: LRUC 776.8 Road traffic accidents 786.9 Road haulage operations 78

    7 Rail-Freight Operations 807.1 Britains privatized railway 807.2 Rail operations in Europe 817.3 European Railway Agency 837.4 The Euro-wide railway: Railion 847.5 UK rail-freight strategy 857.6 Rail freight in decline 857.7 The loading-gauge issue 857.8 Piggyback operation 867.9 Rolling highways 877.10 The Central Railway project 887.11 Channel Tunnel Rail Link 897.12 Eurotunnel 897.13 Freight aggregators and integrators 907.14 Locomotive power 91

    8 Inland Waterway, Short-Sea, and Coastal Shipping 928.1 Waterway statistics 938.2 Inland waterways 93

    vi Contents

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  • 8.3 UK inland waterways 958.4 Inland waterways in Europe 1008.5 Short-sea and coastal shipping 1038.6 Container shipping 109

    9 Environmental and Economic Issues 1109.1 An environmental solution 1109.2 Freight by road, rail, or waterway? 1109.3 The ECs view 1129.4 The environmental impact of transport 1139.5 Something must be done 1159.6 Vehicle exhaust emissions 1169.7 Environment reports 1199.8 The economic issue 121

    10 Grant Aid and Government Support 12210.1 UK Government grants 12210.2 EC grants 129

    11 Intermodal Networks and Freight Interchanges 13311.1 The TEN-Ts 13411.2 Trans-European Rail Freight Freeways 13811.3 Motorways of the Sea 13911.4 Infrastructure developments in retrospect 14011.5 Freight interchanges (terminals) 14211.6 The ECs 2004 list of 30 TEN-T projects 147

    12 Intermodal Road and Rail Vehicles and Maritime Vessels 15012.1 Road vehicles 15012.2 Bimodal semi-trailer systems 15512.3 Rail wagons 15712.4 Maritime vessels 161

    13 Intermodal Loading Units, Transfer Equipment and Satellite Communications 16613.1 Swap bodies 16613.2 Freight containers 16913.3 Lifting equipment 17113.4 Other handling equipment 17713.5 Satellite tracking of vehicles and loading units 177

    14 Carrier Liability in Intermodal Transport 18014.1 International agreements 18114.2 Liability in domestic road and rail operations 18114.3 International carriage of goods by road: CMR 18214.4 International carriage of goods by rail: CIM 18714.5 Compensation for loss 18914.6 Liability rules for multimodal transport 19014.7 GIT insurance protection 191

    Contents vii

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  • 15 Intermodal Documentation and Authorizations 19315.1 CMR consignment notes for international haulage journeys 19415.2 Consignment notes for own-account carriage by road 19615.3 CIM consignment notes for international rail journeys 19715.4 Combined/multimodal transport documents 19915.5 Legal requirements for international road haulage journeys 20015.6 Community authorization 20015.7 Road haulage cabotage 20315.8 Bilateral road haulage permits 20515.9 Eco-points for transit of Austria 20615.10 Permit checks 20815.11 Own-account transport operations 20815.12 Other documents 208

    16 Customs Procedures 21016.1 Community Transit 21016.2 Transport International Routier (TIR) 21416.3 ATA Carnets 21616.4 Carnets de Passage 216

    17 International Carriage of Dangerous Goods 21817.1 Dangerous goods legislation 21817.2 The international carriage of dangerous goods by rail: RID 23517.3 The carriage of dangerous goods through the Channel Tunnel (IGC) 237

    18 Safety in Transport 24018.1 Safety in road freighting 24118.2 Rail safety 24518.3 Freight container safety regulations 24618.4 International standards for swap bodies 24718.5 Maritime safety 24818.6 Duty of care 249

    Glossary of terms 250

    Bibliography 258

    Index 263

    viii Contents

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  • Front cover captions

    1. Distribution of Blue Circle (Lafarge) cement in the UK by piggyback roadrail system. (Photo:David Lowe.)

    2. Geest North Sea Lines latest short sea vessel shipping containers in costal trade3. Transferring a Maersk Line ISO shipping container from articulated road vehicle on to rail with the

    aid of a twist-lock equipped spreader on a gantry crane. (Publicity photo.)

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  • To my wifePatricia

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  • Disclaimer

    The legal explanations in this text are provided for general information purposes only and are not defini-tive interpretations of the law, which only the courts may make. Readers are advised to seek appropriatelegal advice before making any decisions based on the legal information contained herein.

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  • List of illustrations

    1.1 EU Freight transport by mode (tonne-kilometres %) statistics 19702000. (Source: EU Energyand Transport, via transport.)

    2.1 European network of combined transport. (Source: European Commission, via Internet.)3.1 Typical piggyback tank trailer being unloaded by overhead gantry crane. (Source: Interferry.)3.2 Lafarge bulk cement tanker semi-trailer being offloaded from rail wagon. (Source: Author.)3.3 Lafarge/Blue Circle intermodal train loaded with both bagged-cement curtain-sided semi-trailers

    and tank trailers. (Source: Author.)3.4 Rugby Cement/ISO-veyor intermodal tank container on road vehicle delivering in Heathrow

    Terminal 5 site. (Source: Rugby Cement.)3.5 A trainload of Rugby Cement/ISO-veyor tank containers en-route to Heathrow Terminal 5 project.

    (Source: Rugby Cement.)7.1 Static UK and European rail loading gauges shown in profile.7.2 Schematic illustration showing various intermodal systems (combined transport techniques):

    (a) unaccompanied s


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