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NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Global Intermodal Freight
State of Readiness for the 21st Century
Report of a Conference
C O N F E R E N C E P R O C E E D I N G S 2 5TRA
t:State of Readin
ess for the 21st C
TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 2001 EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE*
Chairman: John M. Samuels, Senior Vice President, Operations Planning and Support, Norfolk SouthernCorporation, Norfolk, Virginia
Vice Chairman: E. Dean Carlson, Secretary of Transportation, Kansas Department of Transportation, TopekaExecutive Director: Robert E. Skinner, Jr., Transportation Research Board
William D. Ankner, Director, Rhode Island Department of Transportation, ProvidenceThomas F. Barry, Jr., Secretary of Transportation, Florida Department of Transportation, TallahasseeJack E. Buffington, Associate Director and Research Professor, Mack-Blackwell National Rural Transportation Study
Center, University of Arkansas, FayettevilleSarah C. Campbell, President, TransManagement, Inc., Washington, D.C.Joanne F. Casey, President, Intermodal Association of North America, Greenbelt, MarylandJames C. Codell III, Secretary, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, FrankfortJohn L. Craig, Director, Nebraska Department of Roads, LincolnRobert A. Frosch, Senior Research Fellow, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, John F. Kennedy
School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts Gorman Gilbert, Director, Oklahoma Transportation Center, Oklahoma State University, StillwaterGenevieve Giuliano, Professor, School of Policy, Planning, and Development, University of Southern California,
Los AngelesLester A. Hoel, L.A. Lacy Distinguished Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Virginia,
Charlottesville (Past Chairman, 1986)H. Thomas Kornegay, Executive Director, Port of Houston Authority, Houston, TexasBradley L. Mallory, Secretary of Transportation, Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, HarrisburgMichael D. Meyer, Professor, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology,
AtlantaJeff P. Morales, Director of Transportation, California Department of Transportation, SacramentoJeffrey R. Moreland, Executive Vice PresidentLaw and Chief of Staff, Burlington Northern Santa Fe Railway,
Fort Worth, TexasJohn P. Poorman, Staff Director, Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, New YorkCatherine L. Ross, Executive Director, Georgia Regional Transportation Agency, AtlantaWayne Shackelford, Senior Vice President, Gresham Smith & Partners, Alpharetta, Georgia (Past Chairman, 1999)Paul P. Skoutelas, CEO, Port Authority of Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaMichael S. Townes, Executive Director, Transportation District Commission of Hampton Roads, Hampton, VirginiaMartin Wachs, Director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Berkeley (Past Chairman,
2000)Michael W. Wickham, Chairman and CEO, Roadway Express, Inc., Akron, OhioJames A. Wilding, President and CEO, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Alexandria, VirginiaM. Gordon Wolman, Professor of Geography and Environmental Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University,
Mike Acott, President, National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, Maryland (ex officio)Edward A. Brigham, Acting Deputy Administrator, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department
of Transportation (ex officio)Bruce J. Carlton, Acting Deputy Administrator, Maritime Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation
(ex officio)Julie A. Cirillo, Assistant Administrator and Chief Safety Officer, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration,
U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Susan M. Coughlin, Director and Chief Operating Officer, The American Trucking Associations Foundation, Inc.,
Alexandria, Virginia (ex officio)Jennifer L. Dorn, Administrator, Federal Transit Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Robert B. Flowers (Lt. Gen., U.S. Army), Chief of Engineers and Commander, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
Washington, D.C. (ex officio)Harold K. Forsen, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)Jane F. Garvey, Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Thomas J. Gross, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Office of Transportation Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy
(ex officio)Edward R. Hamberger, President and CEO, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)John C. Horsley, Executive Director, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials,
Washington, D.C. (ex officio)James M. Loy (Adm., U.S. Coast Guard), Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)William W. Millar, President, American Public Transportation Association, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
(Past Chairman, 1992)Margo T. Oge, Director, Office of Transportation and Air Quality, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Washington, D.C. (ex officio)Valentin J. Riva, President and CEO, American Concrete Pavement Association, Skokie, Illinois (ex officio)Jon Allan Rutter, Administrator, Federal Railroad Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)Vincent F. Schimmoller, Deputy Executive Director, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of
Transportation (ex officio)Ashish K. Sen, Director, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation (ex officio)L. Robert Shelton III, Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of
Transportation (ex officio)Michael R. Thomas, Director, Applications Division, Office of Earth Sciences Enterprise, National Aeronautics and
Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (ex officio)
* Membership as of August 2001.
C O N F E R E N C E P R O C E E D I N G S 2 5
Global Intermodal FreightState of Readiness for the 21st Century
Report of a Conference
February 2326, 2000Long Beach, California
Committee on the Intermodal Challenge: Freight Transportation Issues for the 21st Century
Transportation Research Board
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
U.S. Department of Transportation
Office of Intermodalism
Federal Highway Administration
Federal Railroad Administration
U.S. Coast Guard
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL
Transportation Research Board Conference Proceedings 25ISSN 1073-1652ISBN 0-309-07208-5
Subscriber CategoriesI planning, administration, and environmentVII railVIII freight transportation (multimodal)IX marine transportation
Transportation Research Board publications are available by ordering individual publications directly from theTRB Business Office, through the Internet at www.trb.org (or www.national-academies.org/trb), or by annualsubscription through organizational or individual affiliation with TRB. Affiliates and library subscribers areeligible for substantial discounts. For further information, contact the Transportation Research Board Busi-ness Office, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418 (telephone202-334-3214; fax 202-334-2519; or e-mail TRBsales@nas.edu).
Printed in the United States of America
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the Na-tional Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sci-ences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the com-mittee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriatebalance.
This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to the procedures approved by aReport Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academyof Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.
The views expressed in the presentations and papers contained in this report are those of the authors and donot necessarily reflect the views of the committee, the Transportation Research Board, the National ResearchCouncil, or the sponsors of the conference.
The conference was sponsored by the Transportation Research Board, the Defense Advanced ResearchProjects Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the following organizations within the U.S. De-partment of Transportation: the Office of Intermodalism, the Federal Highway Administration, the FederalRailroad Administration, the Maritime Administration, and the U.S. Coast Guard.
Committee on the Intermodal Challenge: Freight Transportation Issues for the 21st CenturyM. John Vickerman, TranSystems Corporation (Cochair)C. Michael Walton, University of Texas at Austin (Cochair)Donald Cameron, BOSE Cor