Crumb Rubber Concrete - CSU, ?· Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber by weight, ... Specific Gravity…

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  • California State University, ChicoCalifornia State University, Chico

    Crumb Rubber Concrete

  • Has Many Names in the LiteratureHas Many Names in the Literature

    Crumb Rubber Concrete (CRC)Crumb Rubber Concrete (CRC)Rubber Included Concrete (RIC)Rubber Included Concrete (RIC)Rubberized ConcreteRubberized ConcreteRubcreteRubcreteTire RubberTire Rubber--Filled ConcreteFilled Concrete

  • Potential Effects of Adding Rubber to ConcretePotential Effects of Adding Rubber to Concrete

    Reduces Compressive StrengthReduces Compressive StrengthCan Increase DuctilityCan Increase DuctilityIncreases Toughness (ability to absorb Increases Toughness (ability to absorb energy)energy)May Reduce CrackingMay Reduce CrackingReduces Unit Weight of the ConcreteReduces Unit Weight of the ConcreteReduces Thermal Expansion/ContractionReduces Thermal Expansion/ContractionMay Replace Air Entraining Agent in Cold May Replace Air Entraining Agent in Cold EnvironmentsEnvironmentsImproves Insulation (but Decreases Thermal Improves Insulation (but Decreases Thermal Mass)Mass)Reduces Sound TransmissionReduces Sound Transmission

  • Potential Applications of Rubber Included ConcretePotential Applications of Rubber Included Concrete

    Tire rubber may replace air entraining Tire rubber may replace air entraining in cold weather applicationsin cold weather applicationsRIC may be more flexible and crack RIC may be more flexible and crack resistant for light weight pavingresistant for light weight pavingRIC may provide vibration damping RIC may provide vibration damping and sound transmission mitigationand sound transmission mitigation

  • Mix DesignMix Design

    The mix design should be based on an The mix design should be based on an absolute absolute volumevolume method, replacing mineral method, replacing mineral aggregate with tire particles of similar size aggregate with tire particles of similar size characteristics (gradation). This is characteristics (gradation). This is accomplished by utilizing the specific accomplished by utilizing the specific gravity of the aggregates. gravity of the aggregates.

  • Mix Design Parameters Mix Design Parameters -- RICRIC

    Type of Rubber ParticlesType of Rubber ParticlesSize of Rubber Particles and Aggregate Size of Rubber Particles and Aggregate Gradation of Rubber ParticlesGradation of Rubber ParticlesSpecific Gravity of Rubber ParticlesSpecific Gravity of Rubber ParticlesFineness Modulus (Fine Aggregate)Fineness Modulus (Fine Aggregate)Rubber Content for MixRubber Content for MixWaterWater--Cement RatioCement Ratio

  • Sample of Mix Designs from LiteratureSample of Mix Designs from Literature

    Author Rubber Type Rubber Content Method of Mix DesignKaloushet. al.

    1mm Crumb Rubber

    0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 #/cuyd

    Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber by weight, increased w/c ratio

    Fedroffet. al. Super fine powder 0, 10, 20, and 30%

    By weight of cement in mix adjusted w/c ratio to get 3 to 5 inches of slump

    Tantalaet.al. Buff Rubber 5 and 10%

    Replaced 5% and 10% of coarse aggregate with buff rubber by volume

    Li et. al.Cyrogenic Ground Rubber

  • Difficulties Interpreting Literature ResultsDifficulties Interpreting Literature Results

    Different types of tire particlesDifferent types of tire particlesDifferent methods of mix designDifferent methods of mix designDifferent pretreatment of tire particlesDifferent pretreatment of tire particlesDifferent testing proceduresDifferent testing procedures

    Only general conclusions can be drawn from the results published in the literature!

  • Summary of Engineering Properties of Rubberized Summary of Engineering Properties of Rubberized Concrete from the LiteratureConcrete from the Literature

    Compressive StrengthCompressive StrengthTensile (Split Cylinder) StrengthTensile (Split Cylinder) StrengthFlexural (Modulus of Rupture) StrengthFlexural (Modulus of Rupture) StrengthUnit WeightUnit WeightAir ContentAir ContentStiffnessStiffnessDuctilityDuctilityToughnessToughnessCoefficient of Thermal ExpansionCoefficient of Thermal ExpansionDurabilityDurabilityDamping characteristicsDamping characteristics

  • Rubberized Concrete Compressive StrengthRubberized Concrete Compressive Strength

    Rubber is weaker and less rigid than the Rubber is weaker and less rigid than the mineral aggregate that they replace, which mineral aggregate that they replace, which reduces the compressive strengthreduces the compressive strengthIncreasing rubber content has been found to Increasing rubber content has been found to increase the air content, which also reduces increase the air content, which also reduces the compressive strengththe compressive strengthThe bond characteristics between the The bond characteristics between the cement paste and the rubber may also cement paste and the rubber may also reduce the compressive strengthreduce the compressive strengthAs always, As always, w/cw/c ratio, unit weight, ratio, unit weight, workmanship, and curing affect compressive workmanship, and curing affect compressive strengthstrength

  • Mix Ingredients for Crumb Rubber Concrete Mix Ingredients for Crumb Rubber Concrete ((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • CrossCross--sectional View of Concrete Samplessectional View of Concrete Samples((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Microscopic View of Crumb Rubber Distribution in Microscopic View of Crumb Rubber Distribution in 400 lbs CR/ 400 lbs CR/ CydCyd. Mix. Mix ((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Effect of Rubber Content on Compressive StrengthEffect of Rubber Content on Compressive Strength((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete Unit WeightEffect of Rubber Content on Concrete Unit Weight((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete Air ContentEffect of Rubber Content on Concrete Air Content((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Effect of Rubber Content on Concrete SlumpEffect of Rubber Content on Concrete Slump((KaloushKaloush et. al. 2004)et. al. 2004)

  • Compressive Stress Strain CurvesCompressive Stress Strain Curves(Li et. al. 1998)(Li et. al. 1998)

  • Compressive Strength and StiffnessCompressive Strength and Stiffness(Li et. al.1998 )(Li et. al.1998 )

  • Flexural StrengthFlexural Strength(Li et. al. 1998)(Li et. al. 1998)

  • Typical Concrete Compression StressTypical Concrete Compression Stress--Strain CurvesStrain Curves((TantalaTantala et. al. 2002)et. al. 2002)

  • StressStress--Strain Curves Ordinary ConcreteStrain Curves Ordinary Concrete((TantalaTantala et. al. 2002)et. al. 2002)

  • StressStress--Strain Curves 5% Rubber ConcreteStrain Curves 5% Rubber Concrete((TantalaTantala et. al. 2002)et. al. 2002)

  • StressStress--Strain Curves 10% Rubber ConcreteStrain Curves 10% Rubber Concrete((TantalaTantala et. al. 2002)et. al. 2002)

  • Maximum Compressive StressMaximum Compressive Stress

  • ToughnessToughness

  • Compressive Strength vs. Rubber ContentCompressive Strength vs. Rubber Content(Biel et. al. 1994)(Biel et. al. 1994)

  • Split Cylinder Strength vs. Rubber ContentSplit Cylinder Strength vs. Rubber Content(Biel et. al. 1994)(Biel et. al. 1994)

  • A Tensile Strength Failure of Ordinary A Tensile Strength Failure of Ordinary ConcreteConcrete ((KaloushKaloush et.alet.al. 2004). 2004)

  • Tensile Strength Failures Crumb Rubber ConcreteTensile Strength Failures Crumb Rubber Concrete((KaloushKaloush et.alet.al. 2004). 2004)

  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Thermal Expansion -- CRCCRC((KaloushKaloush et.alet.al. 2004). 2004)

  • Engineering Properties of Tire RubberEngineering Properties of Tire Rubberfor Concrete Mix Designfor Concrete Mix Design

    Gradation (Generally Uniformly Graded)Gradation (Generally Uniformly Graded)Specific GravitySpecific GravityAbsorption CapacityAbsorption CapacityUnit WeightUnit Weight

  • GradationGradationGenerally Uniformly Graded (Same Size)Generally Uniformly Graded (Same Size)Max Size Varies According to ManufacturingMax Size Varies According to ManufacturingTest According to ASTM D 422Test According to ASTM D 422

  • Crumb Rubber SampleCrumb Rubber Sample

  • GSD Crumb RubberGSD Crumb Rubber

    Grain Size Analysis

    0.0%

    10.0%

    20.0%

    30.0%

    40.0%

    50.0%

    60.0%

    70.0%

    80.0%

    90.0%

    100.0%

    0.0010.010.1110

    Partical diameter, (mm)

    Perc

    ent f

    iner

    (%)

  • Tire Tire BuffingsBuffings SampleSample

  • GSD Tire GSD Tire BuffingsBuffings

    Grain Size Analysis

    0.0%

    10.0%

    20.0%

    30.0%

    40.0%

    50.0%

    60.0%

    70.0%

    80.0%

    90.0%

    100.0%

    0.0010.010.1110100

    Partical diameter, (mm)

    Perc

    ent f

    iner

    (%)

  • Specific Gravity and Absorption CapacitySpecific Gravity and Absorption CapacityTire shred Tire shred Specific gravity Specific gravity Water Water Reference Reference

    type type Bulk Bulk Saturated Saturated surface dry surface dry

    Apparent Apparent Absorption Absorption capacity (%) capacity (%)

    Glass belted Glass belted -------- -------- 1.14 1.14 3.8 3.8 Humphrey et al. (1992)Humphrey et al. (1992)

    Glass belted Glass belted 0.98 0.98 1.02 1.02 1.02 1.02 4 4 ManionManion & Humphrey & Humphrey (1992)(1992)

    Steel belted Steel belted 1.06 1.06 1.01 1.01 1.10 1.10 4 4 ManionManion & Humphrey & Humphrey (1992)(1992)

    Mixture Mixture 1.06 1.06 1.16 1.16 1.18 1.18 9.5 9.5 BressetteBressette (1984)(1984)

    Mixture Mixture (Pine State) (Pine State)

    -------- -------- 1.24 1.24 2 2 Humphrey et al. (1992)Humphrey et al. (1992)

    Mixture Mixture (Palmer) (Palmer)

    -------- -------- 1.27 1.27 2 2 Humphrey et al. (1992)Humphrey et al. (1992)

    Mixture Mixture (Sawyer) (Sawyer)

    -------- -------- 1.23 1.23 4.3 4.3 Humphrey et al. (1992) Humphrey et al. (1992)

    Mixture Mixture 1.01 1.01 1.05 1.05 1.05 1.05 4 4 ManionManion & Humphrey & Humphrey (1992)(1992)

    Mixture Mixture -------- 0.88 to 1.13 0.88 to 1.13 -------- -------- Ahmed (1993)Ahmed (1993)

  • Patented Concrete Mix DesignPatented Concrete Mix Design

    100 parts by weight of cement 100 parts by weight of cement

    100100--200 parts by weight of sand200 parts by weight of sand

    200200--400 parts by weight of coarse aggregates 400 parts by weight of coarse aggregates

    1515--30 parts by weight of shredded particulates 30 parts by weight of shredded particulates comprising rubber, fibers and steel obtained from comprising rubber, fibers and steel obtained from whole waste tireswhole waste tires

    2020--70 parts by weight of water70 parts by weight of water

    Fly ashFly ash

    SuperSuper--plasticizerplasticizer

  • Reinforced Concrete LabReinforced Concrete Lab

    Lab is required of all CE majors as part of a Lab is required of all CE majors as part of a capstone design class in reinforced concrete capstone design class in reinforced concrete designdesignConducted experiments with varying waterConducted experiments with varying water--cement ratios of 0.4, 0.55, and 0.7cement ratios of 0.4, 0.55, and 0.7Each of three labs assigned a different rubber Each of three labs assigned a different rubber percentage: 10, 20 and 30% by volumepercentage: 10, 20 and 30% by volumeReplaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber, Replaced fine aggregate with crumb rubber, and coarse aggregate with rubber and coarse aggregate with rubber buffingsbuffings by by volume assuming a specific gravity of 1 for the volume assuming a specific gravity of 1 for the tire rubber.tire rubber.

  • Lab ObjectivesLab Objectives

    Study the effects of adding tire particles Study the effects of adding tire particles to assigned mix. Try to determine:to assigned mix. Try to determine:

    1.1. Compressive StrengthCompressive Strength2.2. Modulus of ElasticityModulus of Elasticity3.3. PoissonPoissons Ratios Ratio4.4. Air Content Air Content 5.5. Comment on workability/segregationComment on workability/segregation

  • ResultsResults

    Results were generally consistent with Results were generally consistent with the findings in the literaturethe findings in the literature

    Incomplete data sets as they were Incomplete data sets as they were assigned the same mix design that was assigned the same mix design that was given in class for ordinary concrete, and given in class for ordinary concrete, and some results were not recordedsome results were not recorded

  • Concrete Lab ResultsConcrete Lab Results

    Ult. Strength vs. water/cement ratio

    0

    1000

    2000

    3000

    4000

    5000

    6000

    7000

    8000

    9000

    0.25 0.4 0.55 0.7 0.85

    Water Cement ratio

    Ult

    . S

    tren

    th (

    psi)

    0% C.R.

    10% C.R.

    20% C.R.

    30% C.R.

  • CompressometerCompressometer for E and for E and

    UTM for applyingUTM for applyingLoad and measuringLoad and measuringForceForce

    Dial gages for Dial gages for Longitudinal andLongitudinal andTransverse strainTransverse strain

  • StressStress--Strain CurvesStrain CurvesStress vs. Strain for 0.4

    Water/Cement Ratio

    0.0

    500.0

    1000.0

    1500.0

    2000.0

    2500.0

    3000.0

    0.000000

    0.000200

    0.000400

    0.000600

    0.000800

    0.001000

    Strain (in/in)

    Str

    ess (

    psi)

    10% C.R.30% C.R.10% C.R.

    Stress vs. Strain for .55 Water/Cement Ratio

    0.0

    200.0

    400.0

    600.0

    800.0

    1000.0

    1200.0

    1400.0

    1600.0

    1800.0

    2000.0

    0.000000 0.000200 0.000400 0.000600 0.000800

    Strain (in/in)

    Str

    ess (

    psi)

    10% C.R.20% C.R.20% C.R.30% C.R.

    Stress vs. Strain for .7 Water/Cement Ratio

    0.0

    100.0

    200.0

    300.0

    400.0

    500.0

    600.0

    700.0

    800.0

    900.0

    0.000000 0.000500 0.001000 0.001500

    Strain (in/in)

    Str

    ess (

    psi)

    10% C.R.30% C.R.30% C.R.

  • Other ResultsOther Results

    Summary of commentsSummary of comments

    No lateral strain data, hence, no No lateral strain data, hence, no

    PoissonPoissons ratio resultss ratio results

    Need another lab cycleNeed another lab cycle

  • A fair amount of research has been done in A fair amount of research has been done in using waste tire particles in Portland using waste tire particles in Portland cement concretecement concreteConcrete compressive strength and Concrete compressive strength and stiffness decrease dramatically with stiffness decrease dramatically with increasing rubber contentincreasing rubber contentHowever, tensile strain, ductility, and However, tensile strain, ductility, and toughness have been shown to increase toughness have been shown to increase with small amounts of rubber particleswith small amounts of rubber particles

    SummarySummary

  • Potential ApplicationsPotential Applications

    Light duty paving (sidewalks, etc.)Light duty paving (sidewalks, etc.)

    Vibration mitigationVibration mitigation

    Energy absorption (earthquake)Energy absorption (earthquake)

    Increase freeze/thaw durabilityIncrease freeze/thaw durability

    Others?Others?

  • ReferencesCivil Engineering Applications Using Tire Derived AggregateCivil Engineering Applications Using Tire Derived Aggregate. Presented by Dr. Dana . Presented by Dr. Dana HumphereyHumpherey. . Sponsored by: California Integrated Waste Management BoardSponsored by: California Integrated Waste Management BoardProperties of Crumb Rubber Concrete Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete KamilKamil E. E. KaloushKaloush, , Ph.DPh.D, P.E., Assistant Professor Arizona , P.E., Assistant Professor Arizona State University ,Department of Civil and Environmental EngineerState University ,Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering ing Mechanical Properties of Concrete with Ground Waste Tire Rubber. David Fedroff, Shua...

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