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  • Crumb Rubber Modified BitumenCrumb Rubber Modified Bitumen------ Application Application vs vs SpecificationSpecification

    ____________________________________________________________________ValeroValero BeniciaBenicia Asphalt plant andAsphalt plant and PolyphaltPolyphalt Inc.Inc.


  • Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen (CRMB)

    ! Overview

    ! Current Status & Issues

    ! Feature & Benefit

    ! Specs vs Applications

  • What is CRMB ?What is CRMB ?

    Good question no simple answer

    ! Diverse recycled rubber sources! Diverse processes and applications

    ! Diverse opinions and perceptions

    ! A moving target

  • CRMB: An OverviewCRMB: An Overview

    Rubber Aggregate(Rubber modified



    DRYBlended w. AC/Aggregate

    - Other SpecialtyCrumb Rubbers(TR Disposal& Indus. Waste)

    Modified Bitumen(CRMB)

    - On-Site A-R

    - Terminal Blend

    WETBlended w. AC


    - McDonald

    Recycled Rubber

  • Barriers to Market AcceptanceBarriers to Market Acceptance!! PerformancePerformance

    !! Logistics Logistics

    !! Economics Economics

    !! EnvironmentalEnvironmental

    Crumb Rubber Loading LevelCrumb Rubber Loading Level


    Logistics / Logistics / handlinghandling

    Need Ease handlingNeed Ease handling

  • Mandates ???Mandates ???

    Background:Background:! 1992 - ISTEA Mandate passed

    ! 1995 Sections 1038 of ISTEA mandate repealed

    Impact:Impact:! Confusion

    ! Industry backlash

    ! Significant spike in R&D, field work

    Issue:Issue:! Role of environmental policy in determining engineering specifications

  • Market CharacteristicsMarket Characteristics!! CRMB Paving Market approaching 400,000 tonsCRMB Paving Market approaching 400,000 tons

    !! Undergoing renaissance at presentUndergoing renaissance at present

    !! Regions of high use limitedRegions of high use limited

    !! Many Countries exploring optionsMany Countries exploring options

    !! Diverse applicationsDiverse applications

  • CRMB Process ComparisonCRMB Process Comparison

    Pumpable, ControllableHigh, varying with AC &/or TR type, %

    Process Viscosity

    Maintain consistentChange during storing or applying


    Physical & chemical / Modified contl. phase

    Physical / SwollenDispersed phase

    Interaction / Nature of Modification

    CompatibleProne to rapid settling

    Storage Stability

    15% to 20% by wet15% to 20% by wtAt the Same Loading Levels

    Refinery / TerminalOn-SiteBlending Location

    Advanced CRMB Advanced CRMB ProcessProcess

    Conventional Conventional CRMB ProcessCRMB Process

    Key ItemKey Item

  • Morphology of CRMAMorphology of CRMA

    Advanced ProcessAdvanced Process

    Conventional ProcessConventional Process

  • Advanced CRMA ProcessAdvanced CRMA Process

    --CR Liquefied to a type of oilCR Liquefied to a type of oil: : miscible with bitumen but sacrificing CR performance offering

    -- Produce Produce CRMB with -a desired feature and benefit-a performance graded product

    -- Conventional Conventional CRMB process with performance uncertainty

    Crumb Rubber Loading at 15 to 20% LevelCrumb Rubber Loading at 15 to 20% Level

    Advanced CRMB ProcessAdvanced CRMB Process

  • CRMB ApplicationsCRMB Applications

    Pavements! Hot Mix Asphalt

    Hot Applied Surface Treatments! Crack Fillers / Joint Sealers! Bridge Deck Coatings! Tack Coats! Emulsions

    Other Markets! Waterproofing! Membranes! Coatings


  • CRMB Features & BenefitCRMB Features & BenefitPerformance:Performance:!! Increased rutting resistance at elevated temperatures! Improved fatigue resistance at intermediate temperatures! Reduced thermal cracking! High degree of adhesivity and elastic behavior

    Logistics:Logistics:!! Consistent endConsistent end--point viscositypoint viscosity!! Excellent storage and thermal (performance) stabilityExcellent storage and thermal (performance) stability!! Homogeneous and pumpableHomogeneous and pumpable

    Field:Field:!! Straightforward compaction! Lower temperatures reduce fuming and odors

  • Role of CRMB in Its Application

    Material Selection (CRMB)

    Design Construction

    End Application and Durability

  • CRMB Specification Development

    " Secure the Role of CRMB in its Application

    " Position it into its End Application" Capture its Features and Benefits

  • Product Specification TypesProduct Specification Types! Functional Specification

    -describe end use

    -risk of performance is on the seller

    ! Performance Specification

    -specify measurable capabilities

    -risk of performance is on the seller

    ! Detailed (or Design) Specification

    -quantitative, physical or Chemical description

    -industry or commercial standard

    -risk of performance is on the buyer

  • CRMB SpecificationCRMB Specification!A Detailed (or Design) Specification

    -quantitative, physical or Chemical description

    -industry or commercial standard

    -sampling defined

    ! Minimize Risk on Buyer/User Side

    -understand the application-select relevant parameters as close as possible

    -address all major distresses during the application

  • Application vs SpecificationApplication vs Specification! Pavements (Specifications)! Hot Mix Asphalt (MB, MAC-10TR, PG-TR etc)! Hot Applied Seal Coats (AC15-5TR)! Crack Fillers / Joint Sealers ! Bridge Deck Coatings !Tack Coats

  • CRMB Specification for Hot mix

    An Advanced CRMB Spec must address



    Thermal Cracking


    CRMB Stability

  • Pavement Rutting

    Critical Factors

    " Traffic Frequency

    " Traffic Load & Speed

    " Temperature Distribution

    " Traffic Accumulation Rate

  • Parameters to Address Rutting in CRMB Specs

    North America: PG/PG+ & MB: Dynamic Modulus ( G*/Sin )MAC-10TR : Absolute Viscosity @ 60C

    Pen & S.P.

    AustraliaAB Grade: Consistency @ 60C and SP

  • Pavement Fatigue

    " Critical Temperature

    " Aging

    " Traffic Load & Speed

    " Traffic Rate & Accumulation

    " Structure (Strain level)

    Critical Factors

  • Parameters to Address Fatigue in CRMB Specs North America: PG-TR: Dynamic Viscosity (* ) on PAV(Tex-539-C0): ER @ 50FMB: SSD: (@10rad/s - @1rad/s)

    SSV: (*@10rad/s-*@1rad/s)

    AustraliaAB Grade: Torsional Recovery @ 25 C

  • Pavement Thermal Cracking

    " Cooling Rate

    " Aging

    " Pavement Temperature

    " Temperature Cycle

    Critical Factors

  • Parameters to Address Cracking in CRMB Specs

    North America: PG-TR & MB: Creep Stiffness & Rate (on PVA)MAC-10TR: PEN @ 4C (RTFO)

    AustraliaAB Grade: Stiffness @ 15C

  • CRMB Storage Issues

    CRMB Degradation" CR Separation

    Critical Factors

    Storage Temperature

    Storage Time

    CR Type

    CR & Asphalt Interaction

    Process Type

  • Stability in CRMB Specs

    " Phase Separation well Addressed-Storage: 163C or 180C for 48 or 72 hours-Measure: Stiffness Difference in Top & Bottom

  • Advanced CRMB SpecAdvanced CRMB SpecProposed for Hot MixProposed for Hot Mix



    RAC (70-22)

    PGCR15 (70-28)

    Original CRMB (at 18% at least CR load level)

    Flash Point, min., C T 48 230 230 230

    Rotational Viscosity (RV) @ 135 CCp, max.

    TP 48 3,000 3,000 3,000

    Dynamic Shear RheometerG*/Sin Delta, kPa, min.

    TP 5 1.00at 76C

    1.00at 70C

    1.00at 70C

    Elastic Recovery (ER), 25C elongation @ 10 cm, % min.

    ASTM D-113

    50 50 50

    CRMB Stored @ 163C after 48 hrs

    Difference in R & Bfrom Top and Bottom, C, max

    ASTM-D36 2 2 2

    Rotational Viscosity (RV) @ 135 CCp

    TP 48 report report report

    RV Variation +% 20 20 20

  • Advanced CRMB SpecAdvanced CRMB SpecProposed for Hot MixProposed for Hot Mix ------ Contl.Contl.



    RAC (70-22)

    PG CR15(70-28)

    CRMB RTFO Residue

    Mass loss, %, min. 1.00 1.00 1.00

    Dynamic Shear RheometerG*/Sin Delta, kPa, min.

    TP 5 1.50at 76C

    1.50at 70C

    1.50at 70C

    Elastic Recovery (ER), 25C elongation @ 10 cm, % min.

    ASTM D-113

    report report report

    ER, Retention, %, min 80 80 80

    CRMB PAV Residue (100C)

    Creep Stiffness (S)Mpa @ 300 MPa, max.

    TP -12 C -12 C -18 C

    Slope (m) 0.300, min TP -12 C -12 C -18 C

  • Concluding Remarks

    Properties Measured by an Advanced CRMB Spec Should Address all Critical Factors Causing Distresses in a Specific Application Current CRMB Specs do not Relate Closely to Real Pavement Performance Quite few Discrepancies of Current CRMB Specs exist in their Parameters to Predict the Performance

    CRMB Specs Should Take CRMB Storage/Performance Stability during Handling into Account

  • Thank You

    Role of CRMB in Its ApplicationCRMB Specification DevelopmentCRMB Specification for Hot mixPavement RuttingParameters to Address Rutting in CRMB SpecsPavement FatigueParameters to Address Fatigue in CRMB SpecsPavement Thermal CrackingParameters to Address Cracking in CRMB SpecsCRMB Storage IssuesStability in CRMB SpecsConcluding RemarksThank You


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