evaluation of crumb rubber in hma

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    Evaluation of Crumb Rubber in Hot Mix Asphalt

    Final Report

    July 2004

    Thomas Bennert Ali Maher

    Senior Research Engineer and Professor and Director

    Supervisor of the RAPL

    Joseph SmithResearch Engineer

    Center for Advanced Infrastructure and Transportation (CAIT)

    Rutgers Asphalt/Pavement Laboratory (RAPL)

    Rutgers University

    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    623 Bowser Road

    Piscataway, NJ 08854

    In Cooperation with

    BAYSHORE RECYCLING CORP.

    P.O. Box 290

    75 Crows Mill Road

    Keasbey, NJ 08862

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    Disclaimer Statement

    "The contents of this report reflect the views of the

    author(s) who is (are) responsible for the facts and theaccuracy of the data presented herein. The contents donot necessarily reflect the official views or policies of theNew Jersey Department of Transportation or the FederalHighway Administration. This report does not constitute

    a standard, specification, or regulation."

    The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors,who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the

    information presented herein. This document is disseminatedunder the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation,

    University Transportation Centers Program, in the interest ofinformation exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no

    liability for the contents or use thereof.

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    1. Report No. 2. Government Accession No.

    TECHNICAL REPORT STANDARD TITLE PAGE

    3. Recip i en t s Cat a log No.

    5 . Repor t Date

    8. Performing Organization Report No.

    6. Performing Organizat ion Code

    4. Ti t le and Subt it le

    7. Author(s)

    9. Performing Organization Name and Address 10. Work Unit No.

    11. Contract or Grant No.

    13. Type of Report and Period Covered

    14. S onsorin A enc Code

    12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address

    15. Supplementary Notes

    16. Abstract

    17. Key Word s

    19. Security Classif (of this report)

    Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-69)

    20. Secur i t C l ass i f. o f t h is a e

    18. Distribution Statement

    21. No of Pa es 22. Price

    July, 2004

    CAIT/Rutgers

    Final Report9/2003 7/2004U.S.D.O.T, Research and Special Programs Administration

    400 7th Street, SWWashington, D.C. 20590-0001

    An asphalt-rubber hot mix asphalt (AR-HMA) design was created using a Superpave 12.5mm gradation and a #30 (-) meshcrumb rubber at 20% total weight of the asphalt binder. At this point in time, asphalt rubber has only been used with HMAthat contains a more open graded nature, such as open graded friction course (OGFC). However, OGFC is limited on it usedue to its potential problems (i.e. clogging and winter maintenance). However, a 12.5mm Superpave mix may be used onalmost any roadway in New Jersey and is most commonly found as the surface course. It is used for both new constructionand rehabilitation projects. Therefore, this mix type has the largest potential for usage, meaning that more tires caneventually be recycled. However, two factors need to be considered prior to acceptance; performance and cost.Four HMA mixes were constructed and tested in this study. Three baseline mixes using a PG64-22, PG70-22, and a PG76-22 asphalt binder, as well as the AR-HMA mix which used crumb rubber blended with the same PG64-22 asphalt binder.The influence of crumb rubber particle size on the compaction properties during the mixture design procedure was also

    evaluated. This would provide a method of comparing the final mixture performance of different performance gradedbinders to the AR-HMA mix. This type of methodology of testing the mixtures is extremely important due to the necessityof ensuring the crumb rubber complying to the aggregate gradation volume limitations, and how the crumb rubber interactswith this volume limitation under performance testing. Therefore, a number of different performance tests were conductedon the four different HMA mixes: 1) Asphalt Pavement Analyzer, 2) Repeated Load Permanent Deformation testing usingthe Simple Performance test specifications, 3) Dynamic Modulus, 4) Repeated Shear at Constant Height, 5) FrequencySweep at Constant Height,and 6) Simple Shear at Constant Height.The results from the mixture design portion concluded that to provide consistent compactibility when using crumb rubber ina 12.5mm Superpave design, the maximum particle size should not be greater than a #30 mesh. The performance testsconcluded that the AR-HMA mix performed as well as or better than the PG76-22 for every test conducted. For example,the dynamic modulus test results showed that the AR-HMA had similar stiffnesses to the PG76-22 at the high testtemperatures, however, the AR-HMA had a much less stiffness at the low test temperature. This indicates that the AR-HMA mix design in this study will provide excellent rut resistance, while also providing excellent low temperature crackingresistance. Essentially, by adding the crumb rubber to the PG64-22, the working temperature range of the asphalt binderincreased on both the high and low sides. Also, by performing similarily to the PG76-22, Bayshore Recycling now can

    establish a cost comparison using the difference in cost between a HMA with a PG64-22 and a PG76-22.

    Asphalt Rubber, Dynamic Modulus, SuperpaveShear Tester, Asphalt Pavement Analyzer, SimplePerformance Test

    Unclassified Unclassified 72

    Mr. Thomas Bennert, Dr. Ali Maher, andMr. Joseph Smith

    Evaluation of Crumb Rubber in Hot Mix Asphalt

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Page #

    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1REVIEW OF VOLUMETRIC PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1PERFORMANCE TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

    Superpave Shear Tester . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Asphalt Pavement Analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Binder Consistency Test Viscosity Temperature Relationship . . . . . . . . . 8Dynamic Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Simple Performance Test Repeated Load Permanent Deformation . . . . . 11

    TEST RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12Superpave Shear Tester (SST) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Simple Shear at Constant Height (SSCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Evaluation of Age Hardening from SSCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Frequency Sweep at Constant Height (FSCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21Repeated Shear at Constant Height (RSCH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    Binder Consistency Testing Rotational Viscometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Dynamic Modulus (E*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31Dynamic Repeated Load Permanent Deformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

    CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36RELATED REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38APPENDIX A SUPERPAVE SHEAR TESTER SIMPLE SHEAR . . . . . . . . . 41APPENDIX B SUPERPAVE SHEAR TESTER FREQUENCY SWEEP . . . . 52APPENDIX C SUPERPAVE SHEAR TESTER REPEATED SHEAR . . . . . . 57APPENDIX D DYNAMIC MODULUS TEST RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60APPENDIX E SIMPLE PERFORMANCE TEST REPEATED LOAD . . . . . . 65

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    LIST OF FIGURES

    Page #Figure 1 Aggregate Gradation Used for the 12.5mm Superpave Design with 2

    Two In-Service OGFC Mixes Modified with Crumb Rubber

    Figure 2 Superpave Shear Tester (SST) at the Rutgers Asphalt/Pavement Lab 3Figure 3 Asphalt Pavement Analyzer 7Figure 4 Looking Inside the Asphalt Pavement Analyzer 8Figure 5 HMA Sample Instrumented for the Dynamic Modulus Test 10Figure 6 Sinusoidal Stress Wave Form Applied During the Dynamic Modulus 10

    TestFigure 7 Typical Relationship Between Total Cumulative Permanent 12

    Deformation and Number of Loading CyclesFigure 8 SSCH Test Results Conducted at a Test Temperature of 4 oC 14Figure 9 SSCH Test Results Conducted at a Test Temperature of 20

    oC 14

    Figure 10 SSCH Test Results Conducted at a Test Temperature of 40oC 15

    Figure 11 SSCH Creep Slope Plots for 4

    o

    C 16Figure 12 SSCH Creep Slope Plots for 20oC 16

    Figure 13 SSCH Creep Slope Plots for 40oC 17

    Figure 14 Simple Shear Results for Aged (LTOA) and Unaged (STOA) 19PG64-22 Samples

    Figure 15 Simple Shear Results for Aged (LTOA) and Unaged (STOA) 19PG70-22 Samples

    Figure 16 Simple Shear Results for Aged (LTOA) and Unaged (STOA) 20PG76-22 Samples

    Figure 17 Simple Shear Results for Aged (LTOA) and Unaged (STOA) 20AR-HMA Samples

    Figure 18 FSCH Results from Testing Conducted at RAPL 23Figure 19 Master Curve Developed from Testing Conducted at RAPL 25Figure 20 Frequency Sweep at Constant Height (FSCH) Test Results 26Figure 21 Master Shear Stiffness Curves from the FSCH Test 26Figure 22 Rutting Parameter Results from the FSCH Test 27Figure 23 Accumulated Permanent Shear Strain from the RSC

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