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  • Asphalt-Rubber Information, Issues and Obstacles

    Doug CarlsonExecutive Director

    Rubber Pavements Association

    Information, Issues and Obstacles

  • Dedicated to encouraging greater usage of high Dedicated to encouraging greater usage of high quality, cost effective asphalt pavements quality, cost effective asphalt pavements

    containing recycled tire rubber.containing recycled tire rubber.

  • What is the RPA?What is the RPA?

    Crumb Rubber ProducersCrumb Rubber Producers Contractors Who Use Crumb Contractors Who Use Crumb

    Rubber in PavementsRubber in Pavements Equipment ManufacturersEquipment Manufacturers Consulting FirmsConsulting Firms Testing LaboratoriesTesting Laboratories

    The RPA is a nonThe RPA is a non--profit industry association comprised ofprofit industry association comprised of::

  • Germany, United Kingdom, Mexico, Canada, United Germany, United Kingdom, Mexico, Canada, United States, Austria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Australia, States, Austria, Portugal, Saudi Arabia, Australia,

    South Korea, South Africa, Netherlands and SwedenSouth Korea, South Africa, Netherlands and Sweden

    Where are the RPA Where are the RPA members?members?


    SeminarsSeminars Field ToursField Tours Sponsoring ResearchSponsoring Research RPA NewslettersRPA Newsletters Publishing ReportsPublishing Reports

    Reference LibraryReference Library Monitoring Tire LawsMonitoring Tire Laws Provide Guidance for Provide Guidance for

    Agencies in Use of Agencies in Use of CRM AsphaltCRM Asphalt

  • Who advises the RPA?Who advises the RPA?The RPA Technical Advisory Board is made up The RPA Technical Advisory Board is made up of the nationof the nations leading experts on crumb rubber s leading experts on crumb rubber

    and rubber modified asphalt pavements.and rubber modified asphalt pavements.

    Dr. Serji AmirkhanianDr. Serji Amirkhanian

    Clemson UniversityClemson University

    Dr. Rudy JiminezDr. Rudy Jiminez

    University of ArizonaUniversity of Arizona

    Dr. K.C. EvansDr. K.C. Evans

    Odessa District, TXDOTOdessa District, TXDOT

    Dr. Jon EppsDr. Jon Epps

    University of Nevada, University of Nevada,

    Reno, EmeritusReno, Emeritus

    Dr. Kamil Kaloush,Dr. Kamil Kaloush,

    Arizona State UniversityArizona State University

    Dr. Jorge SousaDr. Jorge Sousa

    Consulpav InternationalConsulpav International

  • George Way, Pavement Services Engineer, Arizona DOT Chairman

    Byron Lord, Dep. Director, Office of Pavement Technology, FHWA

    Doug Bernard, Director FHWA Office of Technology Applications (retired)

    Mark Belshe, FNF Construction, Arizona

    Gene Morris, Director, AZ Transp. Center, AZ DOT (retired)

    Larry Smith, Florida DOT Materials Engineer (retired)

    Anne Stonex, MacTec/Law Engineering, Phoenix

    Dick Stubstad, Eres Consulting, California

    Maghsoud Tahmoressi, Former Bituminous Materials Engineer, Texas DOT, President PaveTex Engineering

    Jack Van Kirk, Former Caltrans Engineer, Valley Slurry Seal, CA

    Joe Cano, Bureau of Indian Affairs, US Dept. of Interior

    Technical Advisory Board Technical Advisory Board cont.cont.

  • Does RPA recommend the Does RPA recommend the use of all paving material use of all paving material

    containing crumb rubber from containing crumb rubber from scrap tires?scrap tires?

    RPA has strict criteria RPA has strict criteria for paving materials for paving materials and processes the and processes the association association recommends or recommends or promotespromotes

    NonNon--patented, nonpatented, non--proprietary processesproprietary processes

  • Paving materials must be Paving materials must be proven through the following:proven through the following:

    Extensive laboratory researchExtensive laboratory research Construction evaluation researchConstruction evaluation research Successful field performance in all climatesSuccessful field performance in all climates Routine use by two or more states Routine use by two or more states (std. (std.


  • What products currently meet What products currently meet the RPA criteria?the RPA criteria?

    Asphalt-Rubber is a blend of asphalt cement, reclaimed tire rubber and certain additives, in which the rubber component is at least 15% by weight of the total blend and has reacted

    in the hot asphalt cement sufficiently to cause swelling of the rubber particles.

    AsphaltAsphalt--Rubber as defined Rubber as defined by ASTM D8by ASTM D8

  • Benefits of A-R

    Long Term Performance Resistance to Cracking Reduced Thickness Cost Savings Reduced Wet Weather Spray Tire Recycling Tire Pavement Noise Reduction

  • Obstacles

    It doesnt work in this state/climate. We tried it and it didnt work. It cant be recycled The emissions are dangerous It costs too much

  • Low Temperature PG Similarities

    Red dots indicate areas with the same low temperature performance values

  • Asphalt-




  • Good Cold Weather Performance

  • It Didnt Work!

    Traditional aggregate gradations are dense with many fine stone particles.

    Rubber particles are fine. Room must be made for the rubber. The aggregate fines must be removed

    or reduced. Gap Grade or Open Grade mixes

  • Open GradedOpen Graded Gap GradedGap Graded Dense GradedDense Graded

    Aggregate Gradation ComparisonAggregate Gradation Comparison

  • An aerial view of a portable Asphalt-RubberPlant setup at a Hotplant.

  • Metric Ton of MixMix Type Kgs of

    AsphaltKgs of Rubber

    Kgs of Stone

    HMA 42 0 958



    Gap Graded 48 12

    Open Graded 66 16

  • The Most Important Factor in the Success of Asphalt-Rubber:

    HEAT MANAGEMENT Virgin Asphalt Temp: >350 F (177 C) Binder Temperature:325 -375 F (163191 C) Aggregate Temperature: 275 F (135 C) Ambient/Surface Temp: >65/85F (18/30 C)

  • Emission Studies

    ISTEA Mandate in 1991 provided a great quantity of data, the rubber is not

    subjected to temperatures great enough to cause rubber emissions.

  • Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Evaluation of Exhaust Gas Emissions and Worker Exposure from Asphalt Rubber Worker Exposure from Asphalt Rubber

    Binders in Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures Binders in Hot Mix Asphalt Mixtures

    Kathryn OKathryn OC. GunkelC. Gunkel

    Wildwood Environmental Engineering Wildwood Environmental Engineering Consultants, Inc.Consultants, Inc.

    Michigan Department of TransportationMichigan Department of Transportation


  • Quantified Emissions From Seven Mixtures

    Control 1 85/100 Pen AC 30% RAP Control 2 No Rubber, No RAP Control 3 No Rubber, 20% RAP RBR 1 Wet Process, No RAP RBR 2 No Rubber, 20% RBR RAP RBR 3 Wet Process, 20% RBR RAP RBR 4 Dry Process, No RAP

  • Lets look at these two

    Control 2 No Rubber, No RAP RBR 1 Wet Process, No RAP

  • Operating Data/Conditions/ Measurements

    Control 2 RBR 1

    HMA Production Rate (tons per hour) 351 357 Dry Aggregate Rate (TPH) 330 333 Asphalt Cement Added (%) 5.75% 6.84% Materials moisture content 4.17% 5.21% Fuel Consumption (gal/hr) 655 690 Exhaust Gas Temperature (F) 311 324 Mix Temperature (F) 296 316 Sample Volume (SCF) 46.501 42.823 Sample Volume (cu. m) 1.317 1.213 Exhaust Gas Moisture (%) 27.0% 29.3% Stack Temperature (F) 260 271 Actual Exhaust Gas Flow (ACFM) 89,540 95,450 Dry Exhaust Gas Flow (DSCFM) 47,076 47,836 Dry Exhaust Gas Flow (DSCMM) 1,333 1,355

    The Operating Conditions Are Similar

  • Continuous Emissions Measurements and Method 18 Results

    Control 2 RBR 1

    CO2, %, Orsat Result 5.79% 6.02% O2, %, Orsat Result 12.75% 12.10% N2, %, Orsat Result 81.46% 81.88% Carbon Dioxide (CO2) 6.00% 6.48% Oxygen (O2) 12.87% 12.18% Carbon Monoxide (CO) PPM 430.5 259.5 Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) PPM 139.3 124.4 Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) PPM 74.4 76.7 Non Methane Total Hydrocarbons (NMTHC) as Carbon PPM

    225.5 183.0

    Methane (CH4) as measured PPM 27.7 10.6 Methane as Carbon PPM 20.7 7.9 Total Hydrocarbons (THC) as Carbon PPM

    245.1 191.3

    NMTHC as Carbon PPM 225.5 183.0

    The Emissions Are Similar

  • PAH Emissions Measurements (lbs/hr) Control 2 RBR 1 Acenaphthene 0.0018 0.0021 Acenaphthylene 0.0022 0.0026 Anthracene 0.0003 ND Benzo Anthracene 0.0002 ND Chrysene 0.0003 ND Fluoranthene 0.0030 0.0024 Fluorene 0.0051 0.0055 Naphthalene 0.0502 0.0622 Naphthalene, 2-Methyl- 0.0578 0.0788 Phenanthrene 0.0120 0.0141 Pyrene 0.0030 0.0022 Cumene 0.0056 0.0069 o-Cresol (2-Methylphenol) 0.0029 0.0011 m-/p-Cresol (3-/4-Methylphenol) 0.0052 0.0058

    The Emissions Are Similar

  • Conclusions

    Rubber does not contribute significantly to any increase in undesirable compounds.

    The base asphalt and burner fuels will cause greater changes in emissions than rubber.

  • Crockford, W.W., Makunike, D., Crockford, W.W., Makunike, D., Davison, R.R., Scullion, T. and Billiter, Davison, R.R., Scullion, T. and Billiter,

    T.C. T.C.

    Report FHWA/TXReport FHWA/TX--95/133395/1333--1F.1F.Texas Transportation InstituteTexas Transportation Institute

    May 1995May 1995

    Recycling Crumb Rubber Recycling Crumb Rubber Modified Asphalt Modified Asphalt


  • ...the material is recyclable and that the recycled material, if properly designed and constructed, should have acceptable long-term performance.

    ...air quality does not seem to be a


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