chapter 9 continued state, society, and the quest for salvation in india 1©2011, the mcgraw-hill...

Download Chapter 9 Continued State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Post on 08-Jan-2018

214 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Gautama’s Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism Forty-nine days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title of Buddha: “the enlightened one” 3 ©2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

TRANSCRIPT

Chapter 9 Continued State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 12011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, ca B.C.E. Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk 2 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gautamas Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism Forty-nine days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title of Buddha: the enlightened one 3 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Buddha and His Followers Begins teaching new doctrine ca. 528 B.C.E. Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities 4 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Buddha and His Disciples 5 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths All life is suffering Suffering caused by desire Removing desire removes suffering This may be done through the eight-fold path Right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration 6 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit Monasteries become important institutions in Indian society 7 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. A Buddhist Monastery 8 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ashokas Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to Buddhism Saddened after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities 9 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Changes in Buddhist Thought Third century B.C.E. to first century C.E. Buddha considered divine Institution of boddhisatvas (saints) Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 10 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (greater vehicle), newer development India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada), earlier version Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 11 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Nalanda Buddhist monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought e.g. mathematical number zero 12 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions Mahabharata Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations 13 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Bhagavad Gita Song of the lord Centuries of revisions, final form ca. 400 C.E. Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 14 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hindu Ethics Obedience to religious and moral laws (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical, and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 15 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 16 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.