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9. State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India

Chapter 9State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India12011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.1The Mauryan and Gupta Empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.22011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2India Before the Mauryan Dynasty520 B.C.E., Persian emperor Darius conquers northwest IndiaIntroduces Persian ruling pattern327 B.C.E., Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian empire in IndiaTroops mutiny, depart after two yearsPolitical power vacuum32011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.3Kingdom of MagadhaMost significant remaining kingdom after Alexanders departureCentral Ganges plainEconomic strengthAgricultureTrade in Ganges valley, Bay of BengalDominated surrounding regions in northeastern India42011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.4Chandragupta MauryaTook advantage of power vacuum left by AlexanderOverthrew Magadha rulersExpanded kingdom to create first unified Indian empireMauryan dynasty52011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.5Chandraguptas GovernmentAdvisor KautalyaRecorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraftForeign policies, economicsDomestic policiesNetwork of spiesLegend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death62011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.6Ashoka MauryaGrandson of ChandraguptaRepresents high point of Mauryan empire, r. 268-232 B.C.E.Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for southPositive ruler-ship integrated Indian societyMuch better known as a ruler than conqueror72011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.7Decline of the Mauryan EmpireEconomic crisis follows death of AshokaHigh costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenueFrequent devaluations of currency to pay salariesRegions begin to abandon Mauryan empireDisappears by 185 B.C.E.82011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.8Regional Kingdom: BactriaNorthwestern IndiaRuled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexanders campaignsIntense cultural activity accompanies active trade92011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.9Regional Kingdom: KushNorthern India/central AsiaCa. 1-300 C.E.Maintained silk road trade network102011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.10The Gupta DynastyBased in MagadhaFounded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), ca. 320 C.E.Slightly smaller than Mauryan empireHighly decentralized leadershipFoundations for studies in natural sciences and mathematics

112011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.11Gupta DeclineFrequent invasions of White Huns, fifth century C.E.Gupta dynasty disintegrates along regional fault linesSmaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal empire founded in sixteenth century122011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.12Economy: Towns and ManufacturingManufactured goods in big demandDeveloped in dense network of small workshopsTrade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India132011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.13Long-Distance TradePersian connection since Cyrus, DariusMassive road-building projects under Persian ruleAlexander extends trade west to MacedonTrade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads142011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.14Trade in the Indian Ocean BasinSeasonal sea trade expandsSpring/winter winds blow from southwest, fall/winter winds blow from northwestTrade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean152011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.15Society: Gender RelationsPatriarchy entrenchedChild marriage common (eight-year-old girls married to men in twenties)Women encouraged to remain in private sphere162011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.16Social Order

Caste system from Aryan timesBrahmins (priests)Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats)Vaishyas (peasants, merchants)Shudras (serfs)172011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.17Castes and GuildsIncreasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste systemJati formed: guilds that acted as subcastesEnforced social orderOut-castes forced into low-status employment182011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.18Wealth and the Social OrderUpward social mobility possible for vaishyas, shudrasWealth challenges varna for status192011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.19Religions of Salvation in Classical IndiaSocial change generated resentment of caste privilegee.g. brahmins free from taxationSixth-fifth century B.C.E., new religions and philosophies challenge status quoCharvakas: atheistsJainists, Buddhists, Hindus202011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.20JainismVardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 B.C.E.Abandons privileged family to lead ascetic lifePromotes seventh century movement based on UpanishadsEmphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings212011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.21AhimsaPrinciple of extreme nonviolenceJainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insectsAhimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.)222011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.22Appeal of JainismRejected caste, jati distinctionsObvious appeal to underprivileged groupsBut asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement232011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.23Early BuddhismSiddhartha Gautama, ca. 563-483 B.C.E.Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic lifeAbandoned comfortable life to become a monk

242011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.24Gautamas Search for EnlightenmentIntense meditation, extreme asceticismForty-nine days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenmentAttained title of Buddha: the enlightened one252011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.25The Buddha and His FollowersBegins teaching new doctrine ca. 528 B.C.E.Followers owned only robes, food bowlsLife of wandering, begging, meditationEstablishment of monastic communities262011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.26Buddha and His Disciples

272011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.27Buddhist Doctrine: The DharmaThe Four Noble TruthsAll life is sufferingThere is an end to sufferingRemoving desire removes sufferingThis may be done through the eight-fold pathRight views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration

282011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.28Appeal of BuddhismLess dependence on brahmins for ritual activitiesNo recognition of caste, jati statusPhilosophy of moderate consumptionPublic service through lay teachingUse of vernacular, not SanskritMonasteries become important institutions in Indian society292011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.29A Buddhist Monastery

302011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.30Ashokas Support of BuddhismPersonal conversion to BuddhismSaddened after violent war with KalingaBanned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in courtMaterial support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities312011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.31Changes in Buddhist ThoughtThird century B.C.E. to first century C.E.Buddha considered divineInstitution of boddhisatvas (saints)Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity

322011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.32Spread of Mahayana BuddhismMahayana (greater vehicle), newer developmentIndia, China, Japan, Korea, central AsiaHinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada), earlier versionCeylon, Burma, Thailand332011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.33NalandaBuddhist monasteryQuasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicinePeak at end of Gupta dynastyHelped spread Indian thoughte.g. mathematical number zero342011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.34Emergence of Popular HinduismComposition of epics from older oral traditionsMahabharataRamayanaEmphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations

352011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.35The Bhagavad GitaSong of the lordCenturies of revisions, final form ca. 400 C.E.Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war362011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.36Hindu EthicsObedience to religious and moral laws (dharma)Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha)Enjoyment of social, physical, and sexual pleasure (kama)Salvation of the soul (moksha)372011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.37Popularity of HinduismGradually replaced Buddhism in IndiaGupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support382011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.38