9. State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India ... Hindu Ethics Obedience to ... State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India

Download 9. State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in   Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India ... Hindu Ethics Obedience to ... State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India

Post on 09-May-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Chapter 9

    State, Society, and the

    Quest for Salvation in India

    1 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • The Mauryan and Gupta Empires

    321 B.C.E.-550 C.E.

    2 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • India Before the Mauryan Dynasty

    520 B.C.E., Persian emperor Darius conquers

    northwest India

    Introduces Persian ruling pattern

    327 B.C.E., Alexander of Macedon destroys

    Persian empire in India

    Troops mutiny, depart after two years

    Political power vacuum

    3 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Kingdom of Magadha

    Most significant remaining kingdom after

    Alexanders departure

    Central Ganges plain

    Economic strength

    Agriculture

    Trade in Ganges valley, Bay of Bengal

    Dominated surrounding regions in northeastern

    India

    4 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Chandragupta Maurya

    Took advantage of power vacuum left by

    Alexander

    Overthrew Magadha rulers

    Expanded kingdom to create first unified Indian

    empire

    Mauryan dynasty

    5 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Chandraguptas Government

    Advisor Kautalya

    Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political

    statecraft

    Foreign policies, economics

    Domestic policies

    Network of spies

    Legend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk,

    starves himself to death

    6 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Ashoka Maurya

    Grandson of Chandragupta

    Represents high point of Mauryan empire,

    r. 268-232 B.C.E.

    Expanded empire to include all of Indian

    subcontinent except for south

    Positive ruler-ship integrated Indian society

    Much better known as a ruler than conqueror

    7 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Decline of the Mauryan Empire

    Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka

    High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported

    by tax revenue

    Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries

    Regions begin to abandon Mauryan empire

    Disappears by 185 B.C.E.

    8 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Regional Kingdom: Bactria

    Northwestern India

    Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of

    Alexanders campaigns

    Intense cultural activity accompanies active trade

    9 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Regional Kingdom: Kush

    Northern India/central Asia

    Ca. 1-300 C.E.

    Maintained silk road trade network

    10 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • The Gupta Dynasty

    Based in Magadha

    Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to

    Chandragupta Maurya), ca. 320 C.E.

    Slightly smaller than Mauryan empire

    Highly decentralized leadership

    Foundations for studies in natural sciences and

    mathematics

    11 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Gupta Decline

    Frequent invasions of White Huns, fifth century

    C.E.

    Gupta dynasty disintegrates along regional fault

    lines

    Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal

    empire founded in sixteenth century

    12 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Economy: Towns and Manufacturing

    Manufactured goods in big demand

    Developed in dense network of small workshops

    Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across

    India

    13 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Long-Distance Trade

    Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius

    Massive road-building projects under Persian rule

    Alexander extends trade west to Macedon

    Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk

    roads

    14 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin

    Seasonal sea trade expands

    Spring/winter winds blow from southwest, fall/winter

    winds blow from northwest

    Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea,

    Mediterranean

    15 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Society: Gender Relations

    Patriarchy entrenched

    Child marriage common (eight-year-old girls

    married to men in twenties)

    Women encouraged to remain in private sphere

    16 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Social Order

    Caste system from Aryan

    times

    Brahmins (priests)

    Kshatriyas (warriors,

    aristocrats)

    Vaishyas (peasants,

    merchants)

    Shudras (serfs)

    17 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Castes and Guilds

    Increasing economic diversification challenges

    simplistic caste system

    Jati formed: guilds that acted as subcastes

    Enforced social order

    Out-castes forced into low-status employment

    18 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Wealth and the Social Order

    Upward social mobility possible for vaishyas,

    shudras

    Wealth challenges varna for status

    19 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Religions of Salvation in Classical

    India

    Social change generated resentment of caste

    privilege

    e.g. brahmins free from taxation

    Sixth-fifth century B.C.E., new religions and

    philosophies challenge status quo

    Charvakas: atheists

    Jainists, Buddhists, Hindus

    20 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Jainism

    Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 B.C.E.

    Abandons privileged family to lead ascetic life

    Promotes seventh century movement based on

    Upanishads

    Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings

    21 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Ahimsa

    Principle of extreme nonviolence

    Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow

    movements to avoid killing insects

    Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements

    (Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.)

    22 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Appeal of Jainism

    Rejected caste, jati distinctions

    Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups

    But asceticism too extreme to become a mass

    movement

    23 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Early Buddhism

    Siddhartha Gautama, ca. 563-483 B.C.E.

    Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic

    life

    Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk

    24 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Gautamas Search for Enlightenment

    Intense meditation, extreme asceticism

    Forty-nine days of meditation under bo tree to

    finally achieve enlightenment

    Attained title of Buddha: the enlightened one

    25 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • The Buddha and His Followers

    Begins teaching new doctrine ca. 528 B.C.E.

    Followers owned only robes, food bowls

    Life of wandering, begging, meditation

    Establishment of monastic communities

    26 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Buddha and His Disciples

    27 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma

    The Four Noble Truths

    All life is suffering

    There is an end to suffering

    Removing desire removes suffering

    This may be done through the eight-fold path

    Right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood,

    effort, mindfulness, concentration

    28 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Appeal of Buddhism

    Less dependence on brahmins for ritual activities

    No recognition of caste, jati status

    Philosophy of moderate consumption

    Public service through lay teaching

    Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit

    Monasteries become important institutions in

    Indian society

    29 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • A Buddhist Monastery

    30 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Ashokas Support of Buddhism

    Personal conversion to Buddhism

    Saddened after violent war with Kalinga

    Banned animal sacrifices, mandated

    vegetarianism in court

    Material support for Buddhist institutions,

    missionary activities

    31 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Changes in Buddhist Thought

    Third century B.C.E. to first century C.E.

    Buddha considered divine

    Institution of boddhisatvas (saints)

    Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious

    activity

    32 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

  • Spread of Mahayana Buddhism

    Mahayana (greater vehicle), newer

    development

    India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia

    Hinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada),

    earlier version

    Ceylon, Burma, Thailand

    33 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.