9. State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India ... Hindu Ethics Obedience to ... State, Society and the Quest for Salvation in India

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Chapter 9 State, Society, and the Quest for Salvation in India 1 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Mauryan and Gupta Empires 321 B.C.E.-550 C.E. 2 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. India Before the Mauryan Dynasty 520 B.C.E., Persian emperor Darius conquers northwest India Introduces Persian ruling pattern 327 B.C.E., Alexander of Macedon destroys Persian empire in India Troops mutiny, depart after two years Political power vacuum 3 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Kingdom of Magadha Most significant remaining kingdom after Alexanders departure Central Ganges plain Economic strength Agriculture Trade in Ganges valley, Bay of Bengal Dominated surrounding regions in northeastern India 4 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chandragupta Maurya Took advantage of power vacuum left by Alexander Overthrew Magadha rulers Expanded kingdom to create first unified Indian empire Mauryan dynasty 5 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chandraguptas Government Advisor Kautalya Recorded in Arthashastra, manual of political statecraft Foreign policies, economics Domestic policies Network of spies Legend: Chandragupta retires to become a monk, starves himself to death 6 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ashoka Maurya Grandson of Chandragupta Represents high point of Mauryan empire, r. 268-232 B.C.E. Expanded empire to include all of Indian subcontinent except for south Positive ruler-ship integrated Indian society Much better known as a ruler than conqueror 7 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Decline of the Mauryan Empire Economic crisis follows death of Ashoka High costs of bureaucracy, military not supported by tax revenue Frequent devaluations of currency to pay salaries Regions begin to abandon Mauryan empire Disappears by 185 B.C.E. 8 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Regional Kingdom: Bactria Northwestern India Ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexanders campaigns Intense cultural activity accompanies active trade 9 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Regional Kingdom: Kush Northern India/central Asia Ca. 1-300 C.E. Maintained silk road trade network 10 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Gupta Dynasty Based in Magadha Founded by Chandra Gupta (no relation to Chandragupta Maurya), ca. 320 C.E. Slightly smaller than Mauryan empire Highly decentralized leadership Foundations for studies in natural sciences and mathematics 11 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gupta Decline Frequent invasions of White Huns, fifth century C.E. Gupta dynasty disintegrates along regional fault lines Smaller local kingdoms dominate until Mughal empire founded in sixteenth century 12 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Economy: Towns and Manufacturing Manufactured goods in big demand Developed in dense network of small workshops Trade intense, capitalizes on trade routes across India 13 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Long-Distance Trade Persian connection since Cyrus, Darius Massive road-building projects under Persian rule Alexander extends trade west to Macedon Trade routes through Kush mountains, the silk roads 14 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trade in the Indian Ocean Basin Seasonal sea trade expands Spring/winter winds blow from southwest, fall/winter winds blow from northwest Trade from Asia to Persian Gulf and Red Sea, Mediterranean 15 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Society: Gender Relations Patriarchy entrenched Child marriage common (eight-year-old girls married to men in twenties) Women encouraged to remain in private sphere 16 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Order Caste system from Aryan times Brahmins (priests) Kshatriyas (warriors, aristocrats) Vaishyas (peasants, merchants) Shudras (serfs) 17 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Castes and Guilds Increasing economic diversification challenges simplistic caste system Jati formed: guilds that acted as subcastes Enforced social order Out-castes forced into low-status employment 18 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Wealth and the Social Order Upward social mobility possible for vaishyas, shudras Wealth challenges varna for status 19 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Religions of Salvation in Classical India Social change generated resentment of caste privilege e.g. brahmins free from taxation Sixth-fifth century B.C.E., new religions and philosophies challenge status quo Charvakas: atheists Jainists, Buddhists, Hindus 20 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Jainism Vardhamana Mahavira, 540-468 B.C.E. Abandons privileged family to lead ascetic life Promotes seventh century movement based on Upanishads Emphasis on selfless living, concern for all beings 21 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ahimsa Principle of extreme nonviolence Jainists sweep earth, strain water, use slow movements to avoid killing insects Ahimsa continues to inspire modern movements (Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr.) 22 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Appeal of Jainism Rejected caste, jati distinctions Obvious appeal to underprivileged groups But asceticism too extreme to become a mass movement 23 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Early Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama, ca. 563-483 B.C.E. Encountered age, sickness, death, then monastic life Abandoned comfortable life to become a monk 24 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gautamas Search for Enlightenment Intense meditation, extreme asceticism Forty-nine days of meditation under bo tree to finally achieve enlightenment Attained title of Buddha: the enlightened one 25 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Buddha and His Followers Begins teaching new doctrine ca. 528 B.C.E. Followers owned only robes, food bowls Life of wandering, begging, meditation Establishment of monastic communities 26 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Buddha and His Disciples 27 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Buddhist Doctrine: The Dharma The Four Noble Truths All life is suffering There is an end to suffering Removing desire removes suffering This may be done through the eight-fold path Right views, intention, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, concentration 28 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Appeal of Buddhism Less dependence on brahmins for ritual activities No recognition of caste, jati status Philosophy of moderate consumption Public service through lay teaching Use of vernacular, not Sanskrit Monasteries become important institutions in Indian society 29 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. A Buddhist Monastery 30 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Ashokas Support of Buddhism Personal conversion to Buddhism Saddened after violent war with Kalinga Banned animal sacrifices, mandated vegetarianism in court Material support for Buddhist institutions, missionary activities 31 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Changes in Buddhist Thought Third century B.C.E. to first century C.E. Buddha considered divine Institution of boddhisatvas (saints) Charitable donations to monasteries regarded as pious activity 32 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Spread of Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana (greater vehicle), newer development India, China, Japan, Korea, central Asia Hinayana (lesser vehicle, also Theravada), earlier version Ceylon, Burma, Thailand 33 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Nalanda Buddhist monastery Quasi-university: Buddhism, Hindu texts, philosophy, astronomy, medicine Peak at end of Gupta dynasty Helped spread Indian thought e.g. mathematical number zero 34 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emergence of Popular Hinduism Composition of epics from older oral traditions Mahabharata Ramayana Emphasis on god Vishnu and his incarnations 35 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Bhagavad Gita Song of the lord Centuries of revisions, final form ca. 400 C.E. Dialogue between Arjuna and Krishna during civil war 36 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hindu Ethics Obedience to religious and moral laws (dharma) Pursuit of economic well-being and honesty (artha) Enjoyment of social, physical, and sexual pleasure (kama) Salvation of the soul (moksha) 37 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Popularity of Hinduism Gradually replaced Buddhism in India Gupta dynastic leaders extend considerable support 38 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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