Biomass Magazine - November 2007

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November 2007 Biomass Magazine

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  • Powerful PelletsFlorida Plant Will Produce 550,000 Tonsof Wood Pellets Per Year

    US $24.95 year : www.BiomassMagazine.com

    INSIDE: WILL CONGRESS PASS A RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY MANDATE?

    December 2007

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    Novozymes North America, Inc.77 Perry Chapel Church RoadFranklinton, NC 27525 Tel. +1 919-494-3000Fax +1 919-494-3485

    biomass@novozymes.comwww.novozymes.com

    Transforming corn and other grains into biofuels is a major

    industry today. But what about tomorrow? The future of bio-

    fuels will also rely on the next generation of raw materials

    biomass. At Novozymes were taking a fresh look at all types

    of biomass, and considering how we can turn it into something

    useful. And you know what? Corn cobs and wheat straw are

    just the beginning. Who knows what other types of waste we

    can transform into fuel?

    Novozymes is the world leader in bioinnovation. Together

    with customers across a broad array of industries we create

    tomorrows industrial biosolutions, improving our customers

    business and the use of our planets resources. Read more at

    www.novozymes.com.

    The future of fuel

  • 12|2007 BIOMASS MAGAZINE 5

    INSIDE November 2007 VOLUME 1 ISSUE 6

    FEATURES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 RESEARCH From Concept to Commercialization

    Several avenues are available, from analytical services agreements to

    cooperative research and development agreements, to employ the National

    Renewable Energy Laboratorys biomass expertise. To keep up with the

    growing industry, the federal lab is doubling the size of its pilot plant and

    enlarging its thermochemical biomass conversion facility. By Jerry W. Kram

    24 POWER Closing the Energy Circle

    Florida will soon be home to the worlds largest wood pellet plant. Green Circle Bio

    Energy Inc. will produce 550,000 tons of wood pellets a year from regionally sourced

    pine trees. The pellets will be shipped to Europe for use in power plants.

    By Ron Kotrba

    30 INNOVATION The Fischer-Tropsch/Fat Connection

    After successfully transforming natural gas into JP8 jet fuel for the U.S. Air

    Force, Syntroleum Corp. is tweaking its technology to use a new feedstock:

    low-grade animal fats, greases and vegetable oils. The company entered into a

    joint venture with Tyson Foods Inc. to commercialize its process and build

    multiple facilities. By Susanne Retka Schill

    36 COPRODUCT Renewed Interest in Bovine Biomass

    Researchers are reviving a form of chemistry called chemurgy to develop

    industrial uses for animal-processed fiber (APF), a coproduct of the anaerobic

    digestion process. APF has been used in a variety of wood-based products,

    including fiberboard and particleboard. By Bryan Sims

    42 POLICY High-Voltage Debate Over Renewable Electricity Mandate

    Congress has yet to pass a renewable electricity mandate, despite the fact that 25

    states and the District of Columbia have passed their own form of a renewable

    portfolio standard (RPS). Supporters, however, believe an RPS may actually get to

    the presidents desk this year. By Anduin Kirkbride McElroy

    46 PROFILE Neutralizing Landfill Leachate

    GEI Development and its subsidiary Liquid Solutions LLC have found a way to

    dispose of the unsavory liquid that oozes from municipal waste sites. The E-VAP

    system evaporates leachate and can be powered by landfill gas. By Nicholas Zeman

    DEPARTMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

    07 Advertiser Index

    09 Industry Events

    11 Business Briefs

    12 Industry News

    51 In the LabProgress to a Pathway:

    PNNL Process Holds Promise for Biobased Chemicals

    By Jerry W. Kram

    53 EERC UpdateBiomass Power Options for Existing Ethanol Plants

    By Bruce Folkedahl

    RESEARCH | PAGE 18

  • t was a great to read your very comprehensive article titled Not So

    Run of the Mill in the September issue of Biomass Magazine. It real-

    ly brought forward how some in the forest products industry are

    viewing pulp and paper mills as potential locations for biorefineries,

    as well as a possible new business model that may actually revitalize the

    industry.

    As discussed in the article, there are so many advantages in having a

    biorefinery collocated in a pulp and paper mill: It creates valuable new prod-

    ucts for the mill, reduces energy costs, uses waste streams effectively for

    power production, and enables the sharing of utilities and resources. While

    your article focused largely on the potential production of cellulosic ethanol

    in the pulp and paper mill setting, we believe that biomass gasification and

    the production of Fischer-Tropsch liquids, or biocrudes, may offer a more

    compelling business case for the industry than does cellulosic ethanol.

    While cellulosic ethanol technologies are still at the experimental level,

    biocrudes from biomass use proven technologies. The process doesnt

    depend on feedstock type and has the potential for utilizing a wide range of

    biomass streams, including what we believe is an untapped resource

    namely byproduct or waste flows from forest and agricultural sources.

    Thus, we would be tapping into the largest potential sources of renewable

    biomass energy in the United States.

    Another major advantage of biocrudes is that they are fungible and

    can be shipped to the petrochemical refiners and processed as standard

    crude, thus eliminating many of the logistical issues associated with

    ethanol. Biocrudes also represent a cleaner and purer source of crude oil

    because they contain no sulfur. As with other biofuels, biocrudes help to ful-

    fill the federal governments mandate of reducing our dependence on for-

    eign oil and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

    In light of these benefits, we at Flambeau River Papers have expand-

    ed our focus since your article was published. Although we have considered

    the production of cellulosic ethanol, upon much evaluation we believe that

    the risk-reward of biocrude production is indeed favorable in some cases.

    In fact, we are now looking at biomass gasification technologies to produce

    biocrude, while becoming the first pulp and paper mill in North America to

    be fossil-fuel-free.

    Bill JohnsonFlambeau River Biofuels LLC

    6 BIOMASS MAGAZINE 12|2007

    letters to theEDITOR

    enjoyed your article on agrichar (Agrichar Rejuvenates Tired Soils

    in the October issue). I believe that we are going to find out that soil

    regeneration will be the most significant key to sustainable consum-

    able crop generation and healthy forest management. This will not

    only apply to any bioenergy-related feedstock, but also for human con-

    sumption crops.

    We have just developed a process for local communities to take veg-

    etative material like forest slash and convert it into a 0.2 to 2 millimeter par-

    ticle that has been tested to show it has great value in soil regeneration due

    to its quick soil absorption qualities. Our processed end product not only

    restores carbon back into the soil, but also recharges the soil with nitrogen,

    ammonia, nitrates, phosphorus, potash, potassium, calcium, magnesium,

    sodium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc and boron, depending on the

    source. We are still studying the impact of this process on agricultural slash

    and are optimistic that we can reduce reliance on petrochemical fertilizer.

    I would hazard a guess to say that the study of soil regeneration will

    have a higher impact on global rural economies for becoming self-sustain-

    ing than any other area of study. Keep up the good work on keeping us all

    informed on what's going on in our world.

    Chris Casson Principle

    FG Enterprises LLC

    I

    I

  • 12|2007 BIOMASS MAGAZINE 7

    EDITORIAL

    Tom Bryan EDITORIAL DIRECTOR tbryan@bbibiofuels.com

    Jaci Satterlund ART DIRECTOR jsatterlund@bbibiofuels.com

    Jessica Sobolik MANAGING EDITOR jsobolik@bbibiofuels.com

    Dave Nilles CONTRIBUTIONS EDITOR dnilles@bbibiofuels.com

    Rona Johnson FEATURES EDITOR rjohnson@bbibiofuels.com

    Craig A. Johnson PLANT LIST & CONSTRUCTION EDITOR cjohnson@bbibiofuels.com

    Michael Shirek ONLINE EDITOR mshirek@bbibiofuels.com

    Jan Tellmann COPY EDITOR jtellmann@bbibiofuels.com

    Ron Kotrba SENIOR STAFF WRITER rkotrba@bbibiofuels.com

    Nicholas Zeman STAFF WRITER nzeman@bbibiofuels.com

    Anduin Kirkbride McElroy STAFF WRITER amcelroy@bbibiofuels.com

    Jerry W. Kram STAFF WRITER jkram@bbibiofuels.com

    Susanne Retka Schill STAFF WRITER sretkaschill@bbibiofuels.com

    Bryan Sims STAFF WRITER bsims@bbibiofuels.com

    Jessica Ebert STAFF WRITER jebert@bbibiofuels.com

    Elizabeth Slavens GRAPHIC DESIGNER bslavens@bbibiofuels.com

    PUBLISHING & SALESMike Bryan PUBLISHER & CEO mbryan@bbibiofuels.com

    Kathy Bryan PUBLISHER & VICE PRESIDENT kbryan@bbibiofuels.com

    Joe Bryan VICE PRESIDENT OF MEDIA jbryan@bbibiofuels.com

    Matthew Spoor SALES DIRECTOR mspoor@bbibiofuels.com

    Howard Brockhouse SENIOR ACCOUNT MANAGER hbrockhouse@bbibiofuels.com

    Clay Moore ACCOUNT MANAGER cmoore@bbibiofuels.com

    Jeremy Hanson ACCOUNT MANAGER jhanson@bbibiofuels.com

    Chad Ekanger ACCOUNT MANAGER cekanger@bbibiofuels.com