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Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe Renate Soellner & Astrid-Britta Brker University of Hildesheim. AAA- Prevent Alcohol Abuse among Adolescents in Europe Effective Environmental Strategies for Prevention. Agenda. Project AAA- p revent. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe Renate Soellner & Astrid-Britta BrkerUniversity of Hildesheim

AAA-Prevent Alcohol Abuse among Adolescents in EuropeEffective Environmental Strategies for Prevention

Beispielbild1AgendaNr.Project AAA-preventBased on: International Self-Report Study of Delinquency (ISRD-2; 2006-2010)N = 67.883, 30 countries, 7. 9. Klasse (11 18 year olds)delinquency, leisure time, drug and alcohol use, family, neighbourhood etc.

Alcohol Abuse among Adolescents in Europe. Effective environmental strategies for preventionN = 57.77125 countries7. 9. Klasse (12 16 year olds )

AAA-PreventJunger-Tas, Marshall, Enzmann, Killias, Steketee & Gruszczynska (2010)Nr.Adolescent Alcohol Use in EuropeEuropean School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD):62% of the adolescents drank during the last month39% have been drunken during the last year43% used at least 5 units of alcoholic beverages (heavy episodic drinking)

Hibell, Guttormsson, Ahlstrm, Balakireva, Bjarnason, Kokkevi & Kraus (2009)

Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC)weekly use:11% of the 13 year olds; 26% of the 15 year oldsbeing drunken at least twice: 11% of the 13 year olds; 33% of the 15 year olds

Currie, Nic Gabhainn, Godeau, Roberts, Smith, Currie, Picket, Richter, Morgan & Barnekow (2008)ESPAD (2007):15-16 year olds35 countriesHBSC (2005/2006):11-15 year olds41 countriesNr.Prevalence

Abstinence RatesNotes:lowest abstinence rates in Eastern European countriesHigh abstinence rates in Mediterranean countries, but also in Iceland, Bosnia-Herzegovina & NorwayNr.Prevalence last month(beer, wine, breezers; spirits)Notes:Less than 50% report drinking alcohol last monthSame pattern as regards lifetime use: Hungary, Estonia, Czech Republic and Denmark show higher use than Portugal, Iceland and Bosnia-HerzegovinaNr.Prevalence of drinking 5 times or more(last month) (beer/wine/breezers; spirits) Notes:Youngsters from Central European countries show frequent use (e.g. Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany)It is the only upper position of Switzerland in all rankingsPortugal, Iceland and Bosnia-Herzegovina are lowest againNr.8Drunkenness due to beer, wine and breezers (lifetime users)

Ever been drunk?Notes:Estonia and Denmark are leading Youngsters from Southern and Western European countries have less experience with drunkenness but also Armenia, Slovenia and Bosnia-HerzegovinaNr.9Drunkenness due to spirits (lifetime users)

Ever been drunk?Notes:Nearly same ranking as regards the use of beer/wine/ breezersMore youngsters reported getting drunken by using spirits than by beer, wine or breezersNr.Prevalence of drinking 5 units or more last drinking occasion (beer/wine/breezers)

Notes:Drinking high amounts of alcohol (5 alcoholic beverages and more) is more common in Central and some Northern European countries Spain is ranked between Northern and Eastern European countries (and not next to the Mediterranean countries)Nr.first, those who having reported not to drink at all; secondly, adolescents who reported drinking 1 to 4 units of alcohol last time; and thirdly, students who stated having drunk 5 or more units of alcohol (beer, wine breezers or spirits) during the last drinking occasion. 11Prevalence of drinking 5 units or more last drinking occasion (spirits)

Notes:Drinking high amounts of spirits is less common overallSimilar ranking as regards the use of beer/wine/breezersNr.12Patterns of useCluster AnalysisVariablesFrequency of use last month (beer, wine, breezers)Amount of units last drinking occasion (beer, wine, breezers)Frequency of use last month (spirits)Amount of units last drinking occasion (spirits)

Data12 16 year-olds, 25 countries, with lifetime experience of drinking alcohol

Nr.Zwei Schritte:Hierarchische ClusteranalyseZufallsstichprobe (50%, N = 17.874)Ward-Methode, quadrierte Euklidische DistanzClusterzentrenanalyse (N = 35.927)

14K-means clusteringno usemild useepisodic usefrequent useheavy episodic usefrequency beer/wine00.621.9112.473.38units beer/ wine01.525.466.1715.52frequency spirits00.120.944.771.99units spirits00.553.794.796.83size (%)42.942.011.52.21.5qualitative differencesCluster meansdifferences in levelNr.Identification of country clusters

Can the countries be categorized regarding the prevalence of alcohol consumption patterns?Nr.Aktueller Alkoholkonsum (nicht z. B. Wie oft waren Sie in Ihrem Leben schon betrunken?)16Three country clusters17

MAINLY MILD USEMAINLY NO USEHIGHEST PROPORTION OF INTENSE USENr.Country clustersPercentEast-EuropeCentral- EuropeNorth-West-Europemild use58.141.127.0episodic use11.315.37.4frequent use1.61.70.7heavy episodic use1.33.51.3no use27.738.463.6Nr.Indicators for Risky use

What is risky drinking?Which goals prevention programs aim at?

How is risky drinking behaviour measured in scientific studies?

Nr.Prevention aims and realitiesPrevention goalslate onsetlow frequencylow amountreduction of risky use habitsdrinking only in leisure-timecontextual abstinenceavoid intoxication

Risky drinking may beearly drinking (minor than 14)drinking at alldrinking more than once (e.g. weekly use)high amounts (e.g. heavy episodic drinking)drinking during examinationsdrunkenness (e.g. at least twice in lifetime)cp. ESPAD, HBSCabstinence and/or responsible drinking?The WHO-concept of contextual abstinence accepts that alcohol can be consumedresponsibly as a kind of luxury food. However, abstinence is essential in certain situations,which are defined by different criteria, such as location, time, contact with special persons,health status etc. Especially at work, contextual abstinence can be part of the corporateculture or be obligatory.21Operationalisations of risky drinkingFrequency Weekly Amount of alcoholHeavy episodic drinking: last monthHeavy episodic drinking: lifetimeConsequences of useDrunkeness lifetime (at least twice)Setting of useAloneTheoretical derived criteriaNo use under the age of 14 &less than 5 times last month &less than 5 units last drinking occasion

Nr.ResultsDistribution of indicators

Nr.Niedrigere Werte im Vergleich zu HBSC24Distribution of sum of indicatorsOver two thirds do not reach any of the criteriah.e.u. last month does not appear solelyNr.Relationships of indicatorsrisky useh.e.u. l.m.h.e.u. lifet.drunkennessweeklyalonerisky use1,695,537,379,465-,023h.e.d. l.m.1,845,500,469-,058h.e.d. lifet.1,510,365-,060drunkenness1,316-,056weekly1-,019alone1Drinking alone does not measure the sameCorrelations of the indicators show middle to high sizeNr.Ausgewhlte LnderNr.SummaryAt least half of the students never drank alcohol in Iceland, Bosnia Herzegovina, France, Portugal, Cyprus and NorwayEstonia, Hungary, Czech Republic and Lithuania show the highest rates of lifetime useHungary, Estonia, Czech Republic, Denmark and Germany rank at the top and Bosnia and Herzegovina, Iceland, Portugal and France at the bottom regarding last month useFrequent drinking shows high ratings in Northern and Central European countries with Estonia, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, Hungary and DenmarkConsidering lifetime drunkenness Northern and Eastern European Countries are leading (Estonia, Denmark, Ireland, Finland, Russia, Sweden and Norway) Heavy drinking of beer, wine and breezers is a common consumption pattern in Western countries (Ireland, Finland, Denmark, the Netherlands and Germany)adolescent alcohol use varies enormously across EuropeNr.The data of the ISRD-2 show a heterogeneous picture of European youngsters alcohol use, thus being in line with the ESPAD and HBSC results.

28SummaryDrinking at least 5 units of spirits during one occasion is popular in countries like Estonia, Ireland, Denmark and PolandAdolescent alcohol use may be described in complex use patterns There are countries with similar alcohol use patternsThe Nordic drinking style which is characterized by using spirits in high amounts was found especially for Estonia and Lithuania. The more beer, wine and breezers drinking culture with high levels of episodic drinking was more common in Central European countriesThe Mediterranean style of drinking alcohol frequently but in moderation was more prevalent in France, Portugal and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

BUT: The problems size differs dependent on the indicator chosenFor planing and evaluation of prevention programs a multiple perspective of risk indicators should be takenNr.The data of the ISRD-2 show a heterogeneous picture of European youngsters alcohol use, thus being in line with the ESPAD and HBSC results.

In order to get a deeper insight into the varying behaviour of alcohol and drug use in different countries, patterns of use should be explored rather than comparing single indicators such as lifetime or last month prevalence

Which should be the aims of preventive efforts?

Which country characteristics may explain these differences in adolescent alcohol use?

29Open questionsWhich should be the aims of preventive efforts?

Which country characteristics may explain these differences in adolescent alcohol use?

Nr.30Alcohol consumption patterns of young adolescents in Europe Renate Soellner & Astrid-Britta BrkerUniversity of Hildesheim

AAA-Prevent Alcohol Abuse among Adolescents in EuropeEffective Environmental Strategies for Prevention

Beispielbild31Country clustering:32countrymildmoderatefrequentintensenoGermany0.430.140.030.040.36Netherlands0.440.150.020.040.35Austria0.400.150.020.030.40Switzerland0.410.150.030.040.38Belgium0.410.120.020.020.43Poland0.420.130.010.040.40Italy0.450.080.010.010.45Slovenia0.470.100.010.020.40Denmark0.350.240.020.050.34Finland0.400.210.010.050.33Ireland0.340.220.010.040.40Czech Rep.

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