1485-1625. five senses: hearing, seeing, tasting, feeling, and smelling helps to...
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The Renaissance1485-1625Five senses: hearing, seeing, tasting, feeling, and smellingHelps to understand world around usSmell citrus, feel tough outer skin, see the color orangeChildren start out in this stateSlave to desires/needs
A child is but a slave To that which he needsCrying for milkTears coming down in beadsThree Sources of KnowledgeReason and IntellectReason is a mental faculty (or ability) found in humans, that is able to generate conclusions from assumptions or premises. In other words, it is amongst other things the means by which rational beings propose specific reasons, or explanations of cause and effect.1First establish by Greeks such as Aristotle and Plato
One elevates by reasonTo a lofty stationConcluding from natureTo reach the Destination
The Second Source of Knowledge1http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/reasonRevelation ()Al-QuranAl-HadithStory of Imam Abu Hanifah
Sufficient for us What is in the nassFrom Allah we learnTo Him we return
The Third Source of Knowledge'Abdullah ibn Mubarak relates that when Imam Abu Hanifa went for Hajj he met Muhammad ibn Ali in Medina. Muhammad ibn Ali said to him, Are you the one who gives preference to Qiyas over ahadith of my Grandfather? The Imam replied, I seek Allahs protection from this, sit down. He sat down and the Imam sat infront of him with respect and said, I would like to ask you three questions. Who is the weaker, man or woman? Woman He replied. How much does a man inherit and how much does a woman? The womans share is half that of a man, he replied. The Imam said, If I gave preference to qiyas then I would have said the opposite (i.e. the woman should inherit more.) The second question, Is Salah more superior or fasting? He replied, to observe Salah. Imam Abu Hanifa said, If I gave preference to qiyas over hadith then I would say Haiza (woman in menstruation) should make qadha of her Salah (read the prayers she missed) and not her fasts. The third question, Is urine more impure or semen. He replied, Urine. Imam Abu Hanifa said, If I gave qiyas preference I would have said that it is not incumbent to have a bath after discharge of semen and it is incumbent to have a bath after discharge of urine. I seek Allahs protection from going against the hadith. All I do is loiter about. Muhammad ibn Ali was so impressed by the Imams love for the Sunnah that he stood up and kissed the Imams forehead.
Shaykh Taha Karaan says, "between Abu Hanifah and Muhammad al-Baqir."4Aqidah is literally to tie a knot Aqidah represents the beliefs of the heartOriginally Surah al-Ikhlas was sufficientMuslim AqidahEarly in 9th century CE (2rd century AH) saw an influx of Greek texts into Muslim landsMostly the translators were Christians Caliphs at the time pushed for this (Al-Mamun (CE 813-33) and Al-Mutasim (CE 833-42))Many of the ideas challenged IslamExample: One of the basic axioms of Greek philosophy is that nothing can come from nothing (Walzer 13).Allah created the entire world from nothing.
Introduction of Greek PhilosophySome completely embraced Greek philosophyOthers completely rejectedOthers still found a middle road of using Greek philosophy to explain depth of AqidahIbn Rushd (Averroes) said Greek philosophy and religion are both paths to the same destinationSimilar trend in European historyReactionsHigh emphasis on religionBeowulf: dealt with pagan themes but put a Christian spin on it
The European Middle AgesFrench word: rebirth or renewalBegan in ItalyPrinting press: 1450sReturn to studying ancient texts of Greeks and Romans
The RenaissanceHumanismCelebrated the individualStimulated the study of Greek and Roman literature and cultureWas supported by wealthy patronsJacob Burckhardt says the Renaissance represented the discovery of the world and of man.
The Renaissance Cont.Middle Ages highest wisdom was knowledge of divine thingsLearned by Gods grace and through revelationRenaissance deprecation of contemplative life rooted in faith and praise of active life and study of political and social manEtienne Gibson says, The difference between the Renaissance and the Middle Ages was not a difference by addition but by subtraction. The Renaissance, as it has been described to us, was not the Middle Ages plus man, but the Middle Ages minus God, and the tragedy is that in losing God the Renaissance was losing man himself (Barnet X).The Other SideParents: John and Katherine MarloweFather was shoemakerLived in Canterbury, EnglandReceived scholarship to Corpus Christi College, Cambridge UniversityChristopher MarloweBA in 1584; MA in 15871587 Cambridge first refused to grant his Masters because of Marlowes absences from college, but Queen Elizabeths Privy Council sent a letter stating: that in all his accions he had behaved him selfe orderlie and discreetlie wherebie he had done her Majestie good service, & deserved to be rewarded for his faithful dealingeFrequent trips to Rheims, France--to visit or spy on Catholics?
Christopher Marlowe Cont.May 30, 1593Murder said to have been committed in the private room of house in DeptfordPuritans gloated that it was a judgment from GodMarlowe had been arrested on May 20th. Charged with AtheismHeresyBurning at the stakeWas released with a lesser sentence
DeathMarlowe was with friends and acquaintances of WalsinghamAn argument eruptedMarlowe drew the dagger of Ingram Frizertried to stab FrizerInstead, received fatal stab wound over his right eyeSome speculate his death to be a government plotFrizer was released without trial within 28 days of the brawl
DeathDido Queen of Carthage (1586)Tamburlaine, I and II (1587-88)The Jew of Malta (1590)The Massacre at Paris (1590)Edward II (1592-93)Dr. Faustus (1594)
WorksDr. FaustusProbably written in 1592Reinvention of an old motifIndividual who sells his or her soul to the devil for knowledgeBased on a real personJohannes FaustusDisreputable German astrologer (early 1500s)
17More about Faustus
Immediate source is a German work from 1587Marlowes Faustus is the first famous version of the storyLater, Romantic writers would revisit itGoetheFaustian bargain any deal made for short-term gain with great costs in the long run18www.wepapers.com/Papers/.../The_English__Renaissance.pptteacher.cgs.k12.va.us/rsmith/English9/Faustus%20BD%202.pptgosps.net/faculty/WSigler/.../Faustus/Faustus%20pwr%20pnt.pptWalzer, Richard. Greek Into Arabic: Essays on Islamic Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1962. Print. Marlowe, Christopher, and Sylvan Barnet. Doctor Faustus. New York: Signet Classics, 1969. Introduction. Print.